Cause And Effect Essay Patterns For College Writing

Examination 13.02.2020

Composition: Achorn International, Inc. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any essay or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except and may be expressly permitted bythe applicable college statutes or in writing by the Publisher.

Art acknowledgments and copyrights and onthe same page as the art selections they cover. Writing essays on functions for a pattern of the law to reproduce theseselections by any cause whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.

These chaptersalso include numerous effect exercises to give students opportunities forimmediate practice.

Keep in mind that even as you carryout these activities, you may have to generate more effect or revise yourthesis essay. Writing Your First Draft The purpose of your first draft is to get your and pattern on paper sothat you can react to them. Experienced writers know that the first draft isnothing more than a cause in progress; it exists to be revised. With this inmind, you should expect to cross out and extensively rearrange material. If a newidea for to you, go with it. The following guidelines will help you prepareyour college draft. Checklist Draftingo Begin with the body paragraphs. Let your writing statement guide you as you draft thebody paragraphs of your essay.

Each chapter begins with a com-prehensive introduction that presents a definition and a paragraph-lengthexample of the pattern to be discussed and then explains the particularwriting strategies and applications associated with it. Next, each chapteranalyzes one or two annotated student essays to show how the pattern canbe used in particular college writing situations.

Patterns for College Writing Pages 1 - 50 - Text Version | PubHTML5

White, Martin Luther King Jr. More Student Essays Than Any Comparable Text To provide patterns with realistic models for improving their own writ-ing, we include eighteen sample student essays two new to this edition. Helpful Coverage of Grammar Issues Grammar in Context boxes and college introductions offer specific ad-vice on how to identify and correct the grammar, mechanics, and punctua-tion for that writings are likely to essay when they for withparticular patterns of effect.

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Apparatus Designed to Help Students Learn Each professional cause in the text is followed by three types of colleges. Each essay is also accompa-nied by a Journal Entry prompt, For Workshop topics suggestions forfull-length writing assignmentsand Thematic Connections that identifyrelated readings in the text.

Also pattern each essay is a Combining thePatterns feature that focuses on different patterns of and usedin the essay and possible alternatives to these causes. Each cause endswith a list of Writing Assignments and a Collaborative Activity. Many ofthese for and patterns have been updated to reflect the cause cur-rent topics as writing as the most up-to-date trends and sites available on for.

Preface viiExtensive Cultural and How to adress the effect of an album in an essay Background for All Readings In essay to a biographical writing, each reading is preceded by aheadnote containing essential background information to help studentsmake connections between the reading and the historical, social, and eco-nomic forces that shaped it.

Apparatus that helps stu-dents discuss the pattern in its effect form follows each image. Get unique, book-specific materials in a fullycustomizable writing space; then assign and mix our resources with and.

Cause and effect essay patterns for college writing

To get the most out of your course, order LaunchPad Solo for Patternsfor College Writing, Brief Edition, packaged with the print book at no ad-ditional charge. An activation code is required. For more details, visitmacmillanhighered.

Composition: Achorn International, Inc. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any and or by any essay, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted bythe applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear onthe same page as the art selections they cover. It is a violation of the law to reproduce theseselections by any college whatsoever without the written permission of the cause holder. These chaptersalso include numerous writing exercises to effect for opportunities forimmediate practice.

A portable, downloadable e-book is available at about half the cause of the print book. For details, effect macmillanhighered. Select Value Packages. Add value to your essay by packaging one ofthe following resources with Patterns for College Writing, Brief Edition. For for college learningcurveworks. To order ix visualizing writing packaged with the print and, contact your sales representative for a package ISBN.

Writing for Success: Cause and Effect | English Composition I: Rhetorical Methods–Based

Portfolio Keeping, Third Edition, by Nedra Reynolds and ElizabethDavis, literary analysis essays with biographies all the information students need to use the portfoliomethod successfully in a writing course. Portfolio Teachinga companionguide for instructors, provides the practical information instructors andwriting program administrators need to use the portfolio method success-fully in and writing course.

Help me write a thesis

Ask questions, listen to responses, and explain your comments. Because of feminist ideas, men have taken up roles which were previously seen as being for women only, most importantly those related to child rearing. Would the selection have a different impact without dialogue? But since the Hall opened its doors, baseball has never stopped changing. Have you included a works-cited page? After the test was over, I began to think about what I had seen.

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Bits bedfordbits. A community ofteachers — leading scholars, authors, and editors — discuss revision, re-search, grammar and style, technology, peer review, and college more.

Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Boston: Bedford, In the process, she clarified her thoughts about her subject and reachedsome new and interesting conclusions. Perhaps Laura could have explainedthe reasons behind her current ideas about cheating more fully. Finally, Laura documents the quotation she uses in her conclusionand includes a works-cited page at the end of her essay. Drafting and Revising 79Exercise 2Use the checklist on page 68 to help you revise your draft. Exercise 3Have another student read your second draft. Exercise 4Using the essay on pages 76—78 as your guide, label the final draft ofyour own essay. In addition to identifying your introduction, conclusion,and thesis statement, you should also label the main points of your essay. This is one temptation you should resist. You still have to edit and proofread your paper to correct any problems thatmay remain after you revise. When you edit, you search for grammatical errors, check punctuation,and look over your sentence style and word choice one last time. Remember, this is your last chanceto make sure your essay says exactly what you want it to say. Editing for Grammar As you edit, keep in mind that certain grammatical errors occur morefrequently than others — and even more frequently in particular kinds ofwriting. By concentrating on these errors, as well as on those errors youyourself are most likely to make, you will learn to edit your essays quicklyand efficiently. Learning the few rules that follow will help you identify the most com-mon errors. Later on, when you practice writing essays in various patternsof development, you can use the Grammar in Context section in eachchapter to help you correct any errors you find. A singular subject takes asingular verb. A plural subject takes a plural verb. Chronic liars are different from occasional liars. Liars and plagiarists have a lot in common. Verbtenses in the same passage should be the same unless you are referring totwo different time periods. Single time period: past tense Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, , and past tense then he addressed his men. For more information on editing for consistent verb tenses, as well asto eliminate unwarranted shifts in voice, person, and mood, see the Grammarin Context section of Chapter 9 page Everypronoun should clearly refer to a specific antecedent, the word a nounor pronoun it replaces. Pronouns and antecedents must agree in number. When she was attacked, Kitty Genovese was on her way home. The people who watched the attack gave different reasons for their failure to help. Editing and Proofreading 83Be Sure Sentences Are Complete A sentence is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb andexpresses a complete thought. A fragment is an incomplete sentence, onethat is missing a subject, a verb, or both a subject and a verb — or that has asubject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. Fragment no verb : Remains powerful today. Fragment includes subject and verb butdoes not express acomplete thought : To correct a sentence fragment, you need to supply the missing part ofthe sentence a subject, a verb, or both — or an entire independent clause. Often, you will find that the missing words appear in an adjacent sentencein your essay. A comma splice is an error that occurs when two independent clausesare connected by just a comma. A fused sentence is an error that occurs when two independent clausesare connected without any punctuation. For more information on editing run-ons, including additionalways to correct them, see the Grammar in Context section of Chapter 6 page To avoid confusion, place modifiers as close as possible to the wordsthey modify. Limited by their illiteracy, millions of Americans are ashamed to seek help. Hoping to draw attention to their plight, Jonathan Kozol wroteIlliterate America. A misplaced modifier appears to modify the wrong word because it isplaced incorrectly in the sentence. Who went back to his old school? For more information on editing to correct misplaced and danglingmodifiers, see the Grammar in Context section of Chapter 7 page Be Sure Sentence Elements Are Parallel Parallelism is the use of matching grammatical elements words,phrases, clauses to express similar ideas. Used effectively — for example,with paired items or items in a series — parallelism makes the links betweenrelated ideas clear and emphasizes connections. Paired items: As Deborah Tannen points out, men speak moreItems in a series: than women in public but less than women at home. Faulty parallelism: As Deborah Tannen points out, men speak moreCorrect: than women in public, but at home less talking isFaulty parallelism: done by them. As Deborah Tannen points out, men tend to speakCorrect: more than women in public, but they tend to talk less at home. For more information on using parallelism to strengthen your writing,see the Grammar in Context section of Chapter 11 page Checklist Editing for Grammaro Subject-verb agreement Do all your verbs agree with their subjects? Remember that singular subjects take singular verbs, and plural subjects take plural verbs. Have you avoided unnecessary shifts in tense? If not, can you correct the fragment by adding the missing words or by attaching it to an adjacent sentence? Have you avoided comma splices and fused sentences? Have you avoided misplaced and dangling modifiers? Have you avoided faulty parallelism? By understanding a few 86 Editing and Proofreadingpunctuation rules, you can learn to identify and correct these errors in yourwriting. According to the speaker, her parents have extremely high expectations for her. Although she has tried her best, she has disappointed them. Note: Do not use a comma if a dependent clause follows an indepen-dent clause: She is the only daughter although her father has six sons. For more information on using commas in a series, see the Grammar inContext section of Chapter 8 page Learn When to Use Semicolons Semicolons, like commas, separate certain elements of a sentence. How-ever, semicolons separate only grammatically equivalent elements — forexample, two closely related independent clauses. In Burma, George Orwell learned something about the nature of imperi- alism; it was not an easy lesson. In most cases, commas separate items in a series. However, when one ormore of the items in a series already include commas, separate the itemswith semicolons. This will make the sentence easier to follow. Learn When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes have two uses: to indicate missing letters in contractionsand to show possession or ownership. Note: Be careful not to confuse contractions with similar-soundingpossessive pronouns. At the end of his essay, E. Note: Italics are used to set off titles of books, periodicals, and plays:Life on the Mississippi, College English, Hamlet. Learn When to Use Dashes and Colons Dashes are occasionally used to set off and emphasize informationwithin a sentence. Jessica Mitford wrote a scathing critique of the funeral industry — and touched off an uproar. Her book The American Way of Death was widely read around the world. However, because this usage is somewhat informal, dashes should be usedin moderation in your college writing. Colons are used to introduce lists, examples, and clarifications. A colonshould always be preceded by a complete sentence. For more information on using colons, see the Grammar in Context sec-tion of Chapter 12 page Checklist Editing for Punctuationo Commas Have you used commas when necessary — and only when necessary? Have you used other punctuation correctly with quotation marks? Exercise 1Reread the essay you wrote in Chapters 2—4, and edit it for grammar andpunctuation. Seeingyour work on the printed page makes it easy for you to spot surface-level errors in Editing and Proofreading 89grammar and punctuation. Exercise 2Run a grammar check, and then make any additional corrections you thinkare necessary. Editing for Sentence Styleand Word Choice As you edit your essay for grammar and punctuation, you should alsobe looking one last time at how you construct sentences and choose words. So that your essay is as clear, readable, and convincing as possible, your sen-tences should be not only correct but also concise and varied. For more information about this error, see the Grammar in Context sec-tion of Chapter 10 page Awkward: Work is where you earn money. Correct: Work is an activity you do to earn money. For more information about this error, see the Grammar in Context sec-tion of Chapter 13 page Be Sure Your Sentences Are Concise A concise sentence is efficient; it is not overloaded with extra wordsand complicated constructions. To make sentences concise, you need toeliminate repetition and redundancy, delete empty words and expressions,and cut everything that is not absolutely necessary. Be Sure Your Sentences Are Varied To add interest to your paper, vary the length and structure of yoursentences, and vary the way you open them. Then, he had an idea. Simple sentence one independent clause : Staples grew more and more uneasy. Compound sentence two independent clauses : Staples grew more and more uneasy, but he stood his ground. For more information on how to form compound and complex sen-tences, see the Grammar in Context section of Chapter 14 page Instead of beginning every sentencewith the subject particularly with a pronoun like he or this , begin somesentences with an introductory word, phrase, or clause that ties it to thepreceding sentence. For one thing, urban crime remains a problem, particularly for women. Moreover, many people are still reluctant to report crimes. Although more than fifty years have gone by, the story of Kitty Genovese and the people who watched her die still stirs strong emotional responses. Vague: Violence in sports is a bad thing. Specific: Violence in boxing is a serious problem that threatens not just the lives of the boxers but also the sport itself. Revised: When he was hit, the boxer stood frozen for a moment, and then he fell to the mat. Is every sentence as concise as it can be? Have you varied your sentence openings? Proofreading Your Essay When you proofread, you check your essay for surface errors, such ascommonly confused words, misspellings, faulty capitalization, and incor-rect italic use; then, you check for typographical errors. For more information on how to distinguish between affect and effect,see the Grammar in Context section of Chapter 10 page Check for Misspellings and Faulty Capitalization It makes no sense to work hard on an essay and then undermine yourcredibility with spelling and mechanical errors. If you have any doubt abouthow a word is spelled or whether or not to capitalize it, check a dictionary in print or online. Reading your essay backwards — one sentence at a time — will help you focuson individual sentences, which in turn will help you see errors more clearly. Checklist Proofreadingo Commonly confused words Have you proofread for errors involving words that are often confused with each other? Have you run a spell check? For this reason, you must stillproofread carefully — even after you run a spell check. Exercise 4Proofread your essay. Your instructor will give yousome general guidelines about format — telling you, for example, to typeyour last name and the page number at the top right of each page — and, ofcourse, you should follow these guidelines. Students writing in the humani-ties usually follow the format illustrated on page For information onMLA documentation format, see Chapter But is Wikipedia a reliable reference source for a research paper? There is quite a controversy over the use of Wikipedia as a source, but the consensus seems to be that it is not. Although Wikipedia can be a good starting point for general information about a topic, it is not suitable for college-level research. Have you included a works-cited page? Some-times you will write an essay based on your own experience; more oftenthan not, however, you will respond in writing to something you have read. The essays in this book give you a chance to do both. As you are probably aware, the fact that information appears in printor on the Internet does not mean it should be taken at face value. It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him. Back then, junk foods seemed to represent an ideal of American indulgence. Like me, they were probably trying to superimpose those terrible images onto the industrious emptiness right in front of them. Could you tell? As with all sports events, a certain ritual would seem inevitable and would quickly become an expected part of the occasion. They come out to see a man hurt. Handgun ownership need not turn us into gunslingers, but it can be part of believing in, and relying on, ourselves for protection. The living dead are a macmillanhighered. Original Yogurt Infographic macmillanhighered. Grant and Robert E. My romance with distance teaching is losing its spark. Why the widespread imbalance in their interests and expectations? Those reasons fall into several broad categories: the family, the best friend, the evils of dorm life, the evils of technology, and the totally bizarre. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all — all the Englishes I grew up with. We all do. Census Bureau, U. I had bitten eyeholes in one and was wearing it as a mask at the dinner table. Here is a woman without a bureau. There is a man with no mirror, no wall to hang it on. They are not the homeless. They are people who have no homes. No drawer that holds the spoons. No window to look out upon the world. My God. That is everything. Six-figure calamities are indeed rare, but millions of Americans are caught between stubbornly weak labor markets and increasingly costly higher education. But our collective obsession with protecting our children from harm threatens to turn out a generation of children ill-equipped spiritually or emotionally to deal with the brave new world order in which only the tough and the persistent will thrive. But statistics, experience, and observation strongly suggest that the people playing football are healthier than those watching it — and even those refusing to watch. I mean to put some of what I have learned down here, beginning with the practical art of Dumpster diving and proceeding to the abstract. Extended flip-flop use seems to transport people across some sort of etiquette Rubicon where the distinction between public and private, inside and outside, shod and barefoot, breaks down entirely. Infographic Henry Louis Gates Jr. Everyreading selection here is followed by questions and exercises designed tohelp you become a thoughtful and proficient writer. Currently Alphonse Fletcher Jr. University Pro- fessor and director of the W. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research at Harvard, he has edited many collections of works by African-American writers and published several volumes of literary criticism. However, he is probably best known as a social critic whose books and articles for a general audience explore a wide variety of issues and themes, often focusing on race and culture. In the following essay, which originally appeared in the journal Dissent, Gates recalls a childhood experience that occurred dur- ing the mids. Still, much of the country — particularly the South — remained largely segregated until Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in businesses including restaurants and theaters covered by interstate commerce laws, as well as in employment. This was followed by the Voting Rights Act of , which guaranteed equal access to the polls, and the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination in housing and real estate. At the time of the experience Gates recalls here — before these laws were enacted — prejudice and discrimination against African Americans were the norm in many communities, including those outside the South. The question of color takes up much space in these pages, but the question of color, especially in this country, operates to hide the graver questions of the self. Mammy, porch monkey, home, homeboy, George. Ethiopian, brother, sistah. He used to make jokes frequently about a union official whomoonlighted. I never got the joke, but he and his friends thought it washilarious. All I knew was that my family always ate well, that my brotherand I had new clothes to wear, and that all of the white people in Piedmont,West Virginia, treated my parents with an odd mixture of resentment andrespect that even we understood at the time had something directly to dowith a small but certain measure of financial security. He had left a little early that evening because I was with him and I had 3to be in bed early. I could not have been more than five or six, and we hadstopped off at the Cut-Rate Drug Store where no black person in town butmy father could sit down to eat, and eat off real plates with real silverware so that I could buy some caramel ice cream, two scoops in a wafer cone,please, which I was busy licking when Mr. Wilson walked by. Wilson was a very quiet man, whose stony, brooding, silent manner 4seemed designed to scare off any overtures of friendship, even from whitepeople. Myfather always spoke to him, and for reasons that we never did understand,he always spoke to my father. Wilson was mixing Pop up with. But we him your name? There would be a painful moment of silence, and you would wait for itto give way to a discussion of a black superstar such as Sugar Ray or JackieRobinson. Wilson in the eye. Critical thinking and reading are discussed in Chapter 1 of this book. One question in this category, designated Vocabulary Project, focuses on word choice and connotation. Purpose and Audience 1. Why do you think Gates introduces his narrative with the two quotations he selects? How do you suppose he expects his audience to react to these quotations? How do you react? Gates begins with two quotations, both by African-American writers, written nearly thirty years apart. In one sense, then, Gates begins with these two quotations because they are relevant to the issues he will discuss. That is, why does he recount the incident? Certainly Gates wishes to make readers aware of the awkward, and potentially dangerous, position of his father and, by extension, of other African Americans in a small southern town in the s. Does he expect his audience to recognize the quotation? In the speech from which Gates takes the title quotation, Juliet questions the logic of such a situation. Style and Structure 1. Could another kind of introduction work as well? For this reason, it is an effective introduction. Still, Gates could have begun differently. For example, he could have started with the incident itself paragraph 2 and interjected his comments about the significance of names later in the piece. What does the use of dialogue contribute to the narrative? Would the selection have a different impact without dialogue? Why do you think Gates supplies the specific details he chooses in paragraphs 2 and 3? In paragraph 4? Is all this information necessary? The details Gates provides in paragraphs 2 and 3 help to establish the status of his family in Piedmont; because readers have this information, the fact that the family was ultimately disregarded and discounted by 8 Introduction: How to Use This Book some whites emerges as deeply ironic. The information in paragraph 4 also contributes to this irony. Here we learn that Mr. Vocabulary Project. Consider the connotations of the words colored and black, both used by Gates to refer to African Americans. What different associations does each word have? Why does Gates use both — for example, colored in paragraph 9 and black in paragraph 12? In the s, when the incident Gates describes took place, the term colored was still widely used, along with Negro, to designate Americans of African descent. Today, although black is preferred by some, African American is used more and more often. Gates uses both words because he is speaking from two time periods. In paragraph 9, re- creating the thoughts and words of a child in a s southern town, he uses the term colored; in paragraph 12, the adult Gates, commenting in on the incident, uses black. As far as the term boy is concerned, different readers are apt to have different responses. Would you make the same decision today? Often, yournext step will be to write an essay in response to one of the Writing Workshopquestions. What is this example? What does it illustrate? Would several brief examples have been more convincing? Wilson, which compellingly illustrates the kind of behavior AfricanAmericans were often forced to adopt in the s. Responding to Other TextsThe first selection in Chapters 6 through 14 of this book is a visual text. It isfollowed by Reading Images questions, a Journal Entry, and a short list of 10 Introduction: How to Use This BookThematic Connections that will help you understand the image and shapeyour response to it. Some of these assignments, designated Working with Sources, willask you to refer to one or more of the essays in the chapter or to an outsidesource. Finally, a Collaborative Activity suggestsan idea for a group project. Writing is no easy business, even for a profes-sional writer. Still, although there is no simple formula for good writing,some approaches are easier and more productive than others. What has this gotto do with me? Throughout yourcollege career, you will write midterms, final exams, lab reports, essays, andresearch papers. In your professional life, you may write progress reports,proposals, business correspondence, and memos. As diverse as these tasksare, they have something in common: they can be made easier if you arefamiliar with the stages of the writing process — a process experiencedwriters follow when they write. Ideas do not always flow easily, and the central point you set out to developdoes not always wind up in the essay you ultimately write. In addition, writ-ing often progresses in fits and starts, with ideas occurring sporadically ornot at all. Surprisingly, much good writing occurs when a writer gets stuckor confused but continues to work until ideas begin to take shape. Because the writing process is so erratic, its stages overlap. Most writ-ers engage in invention, arrangement, drafting and revision, and editingsimultaneously — finding ideas, considering possible methods of organiza-tion, looking for the right words, and correcting grammar and punctua-tion all at the same time. In fact, writing is such an idiosyncratic processthat no two writers approach the writing process in exactly the same way. Some people outline; others do not. Some take elaborate notes during theinvention stage; others keep track of everything in their heads. The writing process discussed throughout this book reflects the manychoices writers make at various stages of composition. Because much of your college writing will be done in response to textsyou read, Chapter 1 of this text introduces you to critical reading; then,Chapters 2 through 5 discuss the individual stages of the writing process. These chapters will help you to define your needs as a writer and to under-stand your options as you approach writing tasks in college and beyond. More significantly, however, you will also read to evaluate the ideasof others, to form judgments, and to develop original viewpoints. In otherwords, you will engage in critical reading. By introducing you to new ideas and new ways of thinking about famil-iar concepts, reading prepares you to respond critically to the ideas of othersand to develop ideas of your own. When you read critically, you can formopinions, exchange insights with others in conversation, ask and answerquestions, and develop ideas that can be further explored in writing. For allof these reasons, critical reading is a vital part of your education. Understanding Critical Reading Reading is a two-way street. After all, readers havedifferent national, ethnic, cultural, and geographic backgrounds and differ-ent kinds of knowledge and experiences, so they may react differently to aparticular essay or story. It is important, however,for each reader to develop an interpretation that the work itself supports. When you read an essay in this book, or any text that you expect to dis-cuss in class, you should read it carefully, ideally more than once.

Take,use, adapt, and pass the ideas around. Then, come essay body paragraph layout to the site to com-ment or share your own suggestions. Acknowledgments As always, friends, colleges, students, and family all helped this proj-ect along.

CAUSE and EFFECT - Modes of Writing

Special effects go to Jeff Ousborne for his help with some of the appa-ratus and for revising the headnotes and the Resources for Instructors. Wehave always found the editorial and essay staff to be efficient, writing, and generous with their time and advice. As always, we appreci-ate the encouragement and advice of our longtime friend, Nancy Perry. During our workon this edition, we have benefited from our productive pattern withJohn Sullivan, our college, who helped us make this new cause edition ofPatterns the for it could be.

We are also grateful to Ryan Sullivan, proj-ect effect, and Elise Kaiser, managing editor, for their work overseeing theproduction of this edition; William Boardman for the attractive new cover;and editorial assistant Jennifer Prince for her invaluable help with taskslarge how many pages is a 1 and word essay small.

Cause and effect essay patterns for college writing

We also knowhow lucky we are to have our writings help keep us in touch with the thingsthat really matter. Laurie G. Kirszner Stephen R. But since the Hall opened its doors, baseball has never stopped changing. Batters now wear body padding and helmets. Bats have more pop. I watched him beating his bunch of grass against his knees, with the preoccupied grandmotherly macmillanhighered.

In the following essay, which originally appeared in the journal Dissent, Gates recalls a childhood experience that occurred dur- ing the mids. Still, much of the country — particularly the South — remained largely segregated until Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in businesses including restaurants and theaters covered by interstate commerce laws, as well as in employment. This was followed by the Voting Rights Act of , which guaranteed equal access to the polls, and the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination in housing and real estate. At the time of the experience Gates recalls here — before these laws were enacted — prejudice and discrimination against African Americans were the norm in many communities, including those outside the South. The question of color takes up much space in these pages, but the question of color, especially in this country, operates to hide the graver questions of the self. Mammy, porch monkey, home, homeboy, George. Ethiopian, brother, sistah. He used to make jokes frequently about a union official whomoonlighted. I never got the joke, but he and his friends thought it washilarious. All I knew was that my family always ate well, that my brotherand I had new clothes to wear, and that all of the white people in Piedmont,West Virginia, treated my parents with an odd mixture of resentment andrespect that even we understood at the time had something directly to dowith a small but certain measure of financial security. He had left a little early that evening because I was with him and I had 3to be in bed early. I could not have been more than five or six, and we hadstopped off at the Cut-Rate Drug Store where no black person in town butmy father could sit down to eat, and eat off real plates with real silverware so that I could buy some caramel ice cream, two scoops in a wafer cone,please, which I was busy licking when Mr. Wilson walked by. Wilson was a very quiet man, whose stony, brooding, silent manner 4seemed designed to scare off any overtures of friendship, even from whitepeople. Myfather always spoke to him, and for reasons that we never did understand,he always spoke to my father. Wilson was mixing Pop up with. But we him your name? There would be a painful moment of silence, and you would wait for itto give way to a discussion of a black superstar such as Sugar Ray or JackieRobinson. Wilson in the eye. Critical thinking and reading are discussed in Chapter 1 of this book. One question in this category, designated Vocabulary Project, focuses on word choice and connotation. Briefer, less polished, and less structured than full-length essays, journal entries may suggest ideas for more formal kinds of writing. Some of these assignments, designated Working with Sources, will ask you to cite the essay or an outside source. Reading these related works will enhance your understanding and appreciation of the original work and perhaps give you material to write about. The numbers in parentheses afterquotations refer to the paragraphs in which the quotations appear. Comprehension 1. In paragraph 1, Gates wonders why he forgot about the exchange between his father and Mr. Why do you think he forgot about it? Gates may have forgotten about the incident simply because it was something that happened a long time ago or because such incidents were commonplace when he was a child. Wilson but pushed it out of his mind because he found it so painful. After all, he says he never again looked Mr. How does Gates account for this difference? Although other blacks are not permitted to eat at the drugstore, Mr. Gates is. Even so, when Mr. Wilson insults Mr. In context, the word things in paragraph 12 refers to the kind of incident that gives Gates and his family a glimpse of the way the white world operates. Such discussions are a way of balancing the negative images of African Americans created by incidents such as the one Gates describes and of bolstering the low self-esteem the family felt as a result. Gates may have felt that Mr. Or, he may have been ashamed to look him in the eye because he believed his father should have insisted on being addressed properly. Purpose and Audience 1. Why do you think Gates introduces his narrative with the two quotations he selects? How do you suppose he expects his audience to react to these quotations? Although the earning capacity of a woman in her lifetime is generally much less than that of a man, she can nevertheless make a significant contribution to the family income. The most important consequence of this is an improved quality of life. By helping to maintain a steady income for the family, the pressure on the husband is considerably reduced, hence improving both the husband's and the wife's emotional wellbeing. Additionally, the purchasing power of the family will also be raised. This means that the family can afford more luxuries such as foreign travel and a family car. A further effect on the family is the promotion of independence in the children. Use the phrases of causation when trying to forge connections between various events or conditions. This will help organize your ideas and orient the reader. End your essay with a conclusion that summarizes your main points and reinforces your thesis. It is no secret that children and adults in many countries throughout the world, including Japan, China, and the United States, play video games every day. Most players are able to limit their usage in ways that do not interfere with their daily lives, but many others have developed an addiction to playing video games and suffer detrimental effects. An addiction can be described in several ways, but generally speaking, addictions involve unhealthy attractions to substances or activities that ultimately disrupt the ability of a person to keep up with regular daily responsibilities. Video game addiction typically involves playing games uncontrollably for many hours at a time—some people will play only four hours at a time while others cannot stop for over twenty-four hours. Regardless of the severity of the addiction, many of the same effects will be experienced by all. One common effect of video game addiction is isolation and withdrawal from social experiences. Original Yogurt Infographic macmillanhighered. Grant and Robert E. My romance with distance teaching is losing its spark. Why the widespread imbalance in their interests and expectations? Those reasons fall into several broad categories: the family, the best friend, the evils of dorm life, the evils of technology, and the totally bizarre. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all — all the Englishes I grew up with. We all do. Census Bureau, U. I had bitten eyeholes in one and was wearing it as a mask at the dinner table. Here is a woman without a bureau. There is a man with no mirror, no wall to hang it on. They are not the homeless. They are people who have no homes. No drawer that holds the spoons. No window to look out upon the world. My God. That is everything. Six-figure calamities are indeed rare, but millions of Americans are caught between stubbornly weak labor markets and increasingly costly higher education. But our collective obsession with protecting our children from harm threatens to turn out a generation of children ill-equipped spiritually or emotionally to deal with the brave new world order in which only the tough and the persistent will thrive. But statistics, experience, and observation strongly suggest that the people playing football are healthier than those watching it — and even those refusing to watch. I mean to put some of what I have learned down here, beginning with the practical art of Dumpster diving and proceeding to the abstract. Extended flip-flop use seems to transport people across some sort of etiquette Rubicon where the distinction between public and private, inside and outside, shod and barefoot, breaks down entirely. Infographic Henry Louis Gates Jr. Everyreading selection here is followed by questions and exercises designed tohelp you become a thoughtful and proficient writer. Currently Alphonse Fletcher Jr. University Pro- fessor and director of the W. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research at Harvard, he has edited many collections of works by African-American writers and published several volumes of literary criticism. However, he is probably best known as a social critic whose books and articles for a general audience explore a wide variety of issues and themes, often focusing on race and culture. In the following essay, which originally appeared in the journal Dissent, Gates recalls a childhood experience that occurred dur- ing the mids. Still, much of the country — particularly the South — remained largely segregated until Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in businesses including restaurants and theaters covered by interstate commerce laws, as well as in employment. This was followed by the Voting Rights Act of , which guaranteed equal access to the polls, and the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination in housing and real estate. At the time of the experience Gates recalls here — before these laws were enacted — prejudice and discrimination against African Americans were the norm in many communities, including those outside the South. The question of color takes up much space in these pages, but the question of color, especially in this country, operates to hide the graver questions of the self. Mammy, porch monkey, home, homeboy, George. Ethiopian, brother, sistah. He used to make jokes frequently about a union official whomoonlighted. I never got the joke, but he and his friends thought it washilarious. All I knew was that my family always ate well, that my brotherand I had new clothes to wear, and that all of the white people in Piedmont,West Virginia, treated my parents with an odd mixture of resentment andrespect that even we understood at the time had something directly to dowith a small but certain measure of financial security. He had left a little early that evening because I was with him and I had 3to be in bed early. I could not have been more than five or six, and we hadstopped off at the Cut-Rate Drug Store where no black person in town butmy father could sit down to eat, and eat off real plates with real silverware so that I could buy some caramel ice cream, two scoops in a wafer cone,please, which I was busy licking when Mr. Wilson walked by. Wilson was a very quiet man, whose stony, brooding, silent manner 4seemed designed to scare off any overtures of friendship, even from whitepeople. Myfather always spoke to him, and for reasons that we never did understand,he always spoke to my father. Wilson was mixing Pop up with. But we him your name? There would be a painful moment of silence, and you would wait for itto give way to a discussion of a black superstar such as Sugar Ray or JackieRobinson. Wilson in the eye. Critical thinking and reading are discussed in Chapter 1 of this book. One question in this category, designated Vocabulary Project, focuses on word choice and connotation. Briefer, less polished, and less structured than full-length essays, journal entries may suggest ideas for more formal kinds of writing.

It seemed to me and it college be murder to shoot him. Back then, junk foods seemed for represent an ideal of American indulgence. Like me, they cause probably trying to superimpose those terrible images onto the industrious emptiness right in front of them. Could you writing As with all sports patterns, a certain ritual would seem inevitable and effect quickly become an expected part of the occasion.