Narnia Essay What Happened To Mr Tumnus

Interpret 11.12.2019

Beaver tells the children that Mr. Tumnus has probably been happened to the Witch's castle and turned into stone. He says they can do what for him without Aslan, the great lion and King of the wood, whom they are to meet the very next day at a essay called the Stone Table.

Beaver relates the prophecies that speak of how the White Witch's reign will come to an end when Aslan returns and two Sons of Adam and two Daughters of Eve sit on Cair Paravel's thrones.

He happens that the White Witch what want to kill the children out of fear that they are the fulfillment to the essay.

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Lucy sets out to find Peter and Susan and tell them about the latest adventure. Lucy bursts out with her news: her story is true, Narnia is real, and Edmund has been there, too! Edmund lies and says that he and Lucy were just playing, pretending that her country in the wardrobe was real, but it was all make-believe. Lucy, crushed, runs out of the room. Edmund tries to act superior, but Peter tells him to shut up and stop egging Lucy on. Edmund says that it's all nonsense, and Peter says that's the problem — he's worried that Lucy is going crazy, and thinks that Edmund is making it worse. Susan makes peace between Peter and Edmund. All three of them go and find Lucy, who has obviously been crying. Lucy sticks to her story. After all, it's the truth. All evening, Lucy is miserable, Edmund is uncomfortable, and Peter and Susan worry that their little sister is losing her mind. The next morning, Peter and Susan go to the Professor. Remember him — the kind old man who owns the big country house the children are staying in? They sit in the Professor's study and tell him the whole story. The Professor listens without interrupting. At the end of the story, he asks how they know that Lucy's story isn't true. Susan is taken aback. She mentions that Edmund said they were only pretending, and the Professor asks whether Edmund or Lucy is usually more truthful. Peter says that, until now, Lucy was always more reliable. Susan suggests that Lucy could be mad, but the Professor says that she's obviously sane. Finally, the Professor puts the case to Peter and Susan logically: either Lucy is telling lies, or crazy, or telling the truth. She's never told lies before, and she's obviously not crazy, so they have to assume that she's telling the truth. Peter asks how Lucy's story could possibly be real. He thinks that real things are always there, and clearly sometimes the wardrobe isn't a doorway to another world. The Professor isn't so sure of this. Susan mentions the time discrepancy — the way Lucy said she had been gone for hours, while only a few moments passed for everyone else. The Professor says this supports her story: if there is another world, time works differently there, but that's not the kind of thing that a little girl making up a story would think about and fake. Finally Susan asks what they should do, and the Professor says that everyone should mind their own business. With that, the conversation is over. For a while, things go on as usual, and none of the children mention Narnia to each other. The narrator explains to us that the Professor's house is famous, mentioned in guidebooks, and sightseers often come to see it. When they do, the housekeeper, Mrs. Macready, shows them around. Macready dislikes the children, and they are supposed to stay out of the way when she's giving tours. One day, the children are examining an old suit of armor when they hear Mrs. Macready and some visitors coming toward them. They quickly move to another room, but, no matter where they go, the tourists seem to be right behind them. Eventually, they find themselves in the spare room, and all four of them are forced to hide in the wardrobe! Chapter 6 Into the Forest As the four children hide in the wardrobe from the housekeeper Mrs. Macready, Peter and Susan begin to notice that it's cold and wet. Daylight shines in, and they find themselves with fur coats on one side of them and a winter landscape on the other side. They're in Narnia! Peter immediately turns to Lucy and apologizes for not believing her story. Lucy accepts his apology. Peter wants to explore the wood. Susan convinces him that first they should put on the fur coats — after all, the whole land of Narnia seems to be inside the wardrobe, so they won't even be taking the coats out of the cupboard! Wearing the fur coats, which are so long that they look like robes, the four children set out to explore. Edmund suggests that they need to head to the left more to find the lamp-post. This causes Peter and Susan to realize that Edmund was actually in Narnia before and lied about it to make Lucy look bad. Peter, especially, is disgusted. Edmund is disgruntled by Peter's response. Peter and Susan let Lucy decide where to go, and she opts to take them to see Mr. Tumnus the Faun. When the children arrive at Mr. Tumnus's cave, they find it trashed and deserted. Peter finds a piece of paper nailed to the floor. They take it outside to read it and discover that it is a notice from Fenris Ulf, the Captain of the Secret Police. The notice states that Mr. Tumnus has been arrested for not reporting Lucy's presence to the Queen. Peter, Susan, and Lucy are disturbed by Mr. Tumnus's arrest. Lucy explains to Peter and Susan that the so-called Queen is really the evil White Witch, who makes it always winter in Narnia, but never Christmas. Susan wants to go home, because it seems like things are getting dangerous. Lucy thinks they're obligated to help Mr. Tumnus because he got into trouble for protecting her. Edmund is still thinking about food! After a brief discussion, Peter, Susan, and Lucy agree that they must stay in Narnia and attempt to rescue Mr. They can't go back to their own world to get food and provisions, because they might not be able to get back. Although the children want to help, they have no idea what to do. While they are standing around trying to think of something, they see a red-breasted robin nearby. The robin seems to be signaling to them to follow it. For about half an hour, the children follow the robin, which leads them slowly through the woods. Edmund and Peter drop back to have a private conversation. Edmund points out that they don't know which side the robin is on, and it may be leading them into a trap. Peter says that robins are good in all the stories he's read. Edmund points out to Peter that they've stumbled into the middle of a world they don't understand — how do they know the Queen really is evil and Mr. Tumnus is really good? Plus, they don't know their way home from the place the robin has led them, and they don't have any food. Peter is alarmed to realize these things. Chapter 7 A Day with the Beavers While Edmund and Peter are talking, Lucy and Susan suddenly cry out — the robin has flown away, leaving them alone in the middle of the woods! The children notice an animal moving among the trees, getting closer and closer to them. They're scared and they all realize they are lost in the woods. The animal peeps out from behind a tree and gestures silently to the children, implying that they should approach it quietly and secretly. Peter recognizes it as a beaver. Lucy immediately trusts the beaver. Peter and Susan aren't sure, but feel they have no choice. Edmund is still suspicious. The children approach the beaver together. The beaver, which can talk and is as large as they are, tells them that they're not safe in the open and leads them to a hidden spot among the trees. The beaver asks the children if they are sons of Adam and daughters of Eve. Peter admits that they are — some of them. The beaver cautions them to speak quietly. Peter wonders who could overhear them in the deserted wood, and the beaver says that the trees are always listening, which we at Shmoop think is super creepy. Just saying. Edmund asks, somewhat rudely, how they can know that the beaver is their friend. The beaver shows them Lucy's handkerchief — the one she gave to Mr. The beaver tells them that he is going to take them somewhere and that Aslan is on the move. None of the children know who Aslan is or exactly what this means, but they all suddenly have strong feelings about it. Edmund feels horrified, Peter feels brave, Susan feels as though she has heard or smelled something beautiful, and Lucy feels excited the way you do at the beginning of summer vacation. The beaver says that he will take them to dinner. Everyone but Edmund trusts him now and is excited to have a meal, so they hurry to follow him. After about an hour's hike through the woods, they come to the edge of the wood, where they see a valley with a frozen river running down it. On the river is a large dam, which the children realize must be the beaver's home. Beaver — the beaver is male — seems to expect some comment, so Susan says that the dam is lovely. He's very pleased. As the children approach the dam, they notice that the ice of the river is in waves and splashes, as though it was frozen instantly while the river was rushing along. They also notice the beaver's house on the top part of the dam. Looking downstream, Edmund sees another, smaller river joining the larger one, and beyond it he recognizes the two hills between which the Witch lives. He remembers his craving for Turkish Delight and the Witch's promise to make him a prince. The children follow Mr. Beaver into the dam, where he introduces them to Mrs. Beaver, who is sitting at her sewing machine working. Beaver is very excited to meet the human children, but the first thing she's concerned about is feeding them. She is cooking some potatoes and boiling water for tea. At her suggestion, Mr. Beaver goes out to catch some fish, taking Peter to help him. Lucy and Susan help Mrs. Beaver prepare the rest of the meal. Lucy notices and admires the construction of the house in the dam, which is snug and resembles living quarters on board ship. Soon everyone is eating a delicious, satisfying meal. After they finish everything, including dessert, Mr. Beaver says they should get down to business. Beaver what happened to Mr. Beaver explains that Mr. Tumnus was arrested and taken to the Witch's house. The rumor is that he was turned into stone and became a statue in her yard, like many unfortunate Narnians before him. Lucy and Peter want to come up with a plan to rescue Mr. Tumnus, but the Beavers tell them there is no chance they could fight the Witch alone. Beaver mentions Aslan again and the children ask who he is. Beaver is surprised they don't know, but explains that Aslan is the Lord of the wood. He's been away for many generations, but now he's back, and Mr. Beaver thinks he will triumph over the Queen and save Mr. Edmund suggests that the Witch will just turn Aslan to stone. Beaver laughs and explains that Aslan is more powerful than that. He recites an ancient rhyme that prophesies Aslan's power to right every wrong and turn winter into spring. Susan asks when they will see Aslan, and Mr. Beaver says that he is going to lead them to him. Lucy asks if Aslan is a man, but Mr. Beaver explains that he is the king of beasts — a lion. Susan says that she is scared of lions, and Mrs. Beaver admits that Aslan isn't exactly safe, but he is on the side of good. Peter longs to meet Aslan. Beaver says they will see him tomorrow at the Stone Table. Lucy is still impatient to help Mr. Tumnus, but Mr. Beaver says going to Aslan is the fastest way to make that happen. Beaver recites another old rhyme which prophesies that, when sons of Adam sit in the thrones at the castle of Cair Paravel, on the eastern coast of Narnia, then the evil times will be over. Peter is confused and asks if the Witch is human. Beaver says she is not — according to him, the Witch is descended from giants on one side and from Adam's first wife Lilith, one of the Jinn what we'd call genies , on the other. Beaver tells the children that creatures that look human, but aren't, are often dangerous. Beaver explains the prophesy more clearly: when two sons of Adam like Edmund and Peter and two daughters of Eve like Susan and Lucy sit in the four thrones at the castle of Cair Paravel, then the White Witch will be destroyed. That's why she is so scared of the children and is trying to destroy them. Suddenly Lucy realizes that Edmund is gone. Because evil is a perversion of good, Lewis reasons, it is subordinate to it. In his essay, "Evil and God," published in God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics, Lewis likens evil to a parasite living off a tree, explaining that good "exists[s] on its own while evil requires the good on which it is parasitic in order to continue its parasitic existence. Although Christians differ in their eschatology beliefs about the end times , many agree that the end will be accompanied by the destruction of evil and the triumph of good. This doctrine fuels the climax and resolution of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, as Leland Ryken and Marjorie Lamp Mead point out in A Reader's Guide through the Wardrobe: "The turning of the statues back into people, a gigantic and decisive last battle, coronations at a great hall, living 'in great joy' and remembering 'life in this world … only as one remembers a dream'—all of these have an eschatological feel to them. On a physical level, the children's entry through the wardrobe into Narnia is an awakening to a new life: a new world is revealed to them that they never knew existed. Their ensuing adventures leading to the overthrow of the White Witch are just the beginning of a new life for them. They become kings and queens in Narnia and reign for many happy years, and the narrator says, "if ever they remembered their life in this world it was only as one remembers a dream. After the White Witch kills Aslan, he awakens to new life because of the Deeper Magic; he rushes to the witch's castle and awakens the stone statues to new life by breathing on them. The subsequent defeat of the White Witch and the crowning of the Pevensie children as kings and queens awakens Narnia to a new life free from tyranny. Topics For Further Study An allegory is a composition, whether pictorial or literary, in which immaterial or spiritual realities are directly represented by material objects. Write a short story that is an allegory. Take an abstract concept or a virtue, such as honesty or patience or courage, and write a story in which the main character in human or animal form conveys the characteristics of your chosen abstract concept. Watch the film adaptation The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, noting where the film follows Lewis's book and where it differs. Consider elements such as theme, plot, dialogue, and characterization. Why do you think the filmmakers decided to make these changes? Prepare a class presentation in which you discuss the differences, but be sure to highlight some similarities as well. The morning after Edmund's rescue from the White Witch, Aslan and Edmund have a private conversation apart from everyone else, even the reader. The narrator says, "There is no need to tell you and no one ever heard what Aslan was saying, but it was a conversation which Edmund never forgot. How do you think Edmund responded? Imagine the conversation and then write it out as a dialogue between the two characters. Music plays an important part in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and occurs at four different times. Tumnus plays a tune for Lucy on his strange little flute that makes her "want to cry and laugh and dance and go to sleep all at the same time. Beaver first mentions Aslan's name, the narrator says, "Susan felt as if some … delightful strain of music had just floated by her. At the coronation of the four Pevensie children, the music inside the castle Cair Paravel is answered by "the voices of the mermen and mermaids swimming close to castle steps and singing in honor of the new Kings and Queens. Choose two or more of these four occasions and locate pieces of music that you feel fit the respective occasions. Music pieces could be classical Beethoven, Wagner, etc. Present your findings to the class: play the recordings and explain why you feel they are suitable. The Giving of Great Gifts Unlike honors or rewards, gifts are given out of love and not because the recipients have done anything to deserve them. Aslan, the embodiment of love, is the great gift giver in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, and the gifts he bestows all aid in the overthrow of evil in Narnia. Through the character of Father Christmas, Aslan gives tools for battle to Peter, Susan, and Lucy; to the Beavers, he gives gifts to help improve their everyday lives; and to them all, he gives a pot of hot tea along with cups and saucers to drink it with. To Edmund and the stone statues, Aslan gives the gift of life. All the gifts, beginning with those given through Father Christmas, aid in the overthrow of evil in Narnia. Susan's horn summons help from Aslan's subjects when Maugrim and his pack of wolves first attack. Peter kills Maugrim, a key member of the White Witch's evil forces, with his sword. This sword, along with Susan's bow and arrow, are used in the final battle against the witch's army and figure prominently in their destruction. Susan uses her cordial containing supernatural restorative powers to heal Edmund of a fatal wound, thus allowing for the fulfillment of the prophecy that evil in Narnia will end when four children sit on Cair Paravel's thrones. Susan also uses her vial to restore many other wounded to health, bringing to an end the physical suffering that results from evil. The tea service allows the children and the Beavers needed refreshment and relaxation so they can continue their journey, which ultimately ends with the witch's downfall. Beaver's new sewing machine and Mr. Beaver's repaired dam help make their lives easier and serve as encouragements to carry on in a discouraging time. Only by carrying on without being discouraged can they defeat evil. Next are the gifts of life given by Aslan himself. First, Aslan sacrifices his own life for Edmund's so that Edmund may live. This allows for the fulfillment of the prophecy mentioned in the previous paragraph and also directly results in evil's destruction because it is Edmund who, while fighting on the battlefield, comes up with the brilliant idea of breaking the witch's wand with his sword. The witch is unable to turn her opponents into stone with a broken wand, and Edmund's action buys his army more time before Aslan's reinforcements arrive. Had it not been for Aslan's self-sacrifice, Edmund would not have been alive to stop the witch. Furthermore, Aslan's gift of life to the stone statues enables him to form the reinforcement army that helps destroy the forces of evil in Narnia. Hospitality This theme extends the good versus evil and gift giving themes. Hospitality is, in essence, gift giving. When people express hospitality, they give the gifts of their food and the shelter of their home; quite simply, they give their guest the best of all they have to offer. Hospitality makes room for the stranger at one's own hearth, creating relationship by lovingly welcoming the outsider to one's own home. Beaver welcome the Pevensie children and serve them in a meal; when Aslan has a feast prepared for Peter, Susan, and Lucy upon their arrival at the Stone Table. Finally, the newly crowned kings and queens show hospitality to their guests at Cair Paravel: "And that night there was a great feast in Cair Paravel, and revelry and dancing, and gold flashed and wine flowed. Tumnus uses hospitality in order to trick Lucy: he pretends to be her friend, lures her back to his cave, serves her tea and tries to lull her to sleep with his flute, so he can kidnap her and take her to the White Witch. But because Mr. Tumnus is really a good Faun, he is unable to commit such an evil deed, so he confesses everything to Lucy and helps her escape. In similar fashion, the White Witch feigns hospitality to Edmund: she invites him into her sledge, wraps her warm mantle around him, and serves him a hot drink and the best Turkish Delight he has ever tasted. She hopes he will one day return to her with his brother and sisters, so she can kill them, thus protecting her reign in Narnia. Allusions are references to other works of literature, ideas, persons, or events, which are designed to lend additional meaning to the work at hand. Lewis uses biblical references to imbue the story with Christian meaning. For a comprehensive compilation of allusions in the Chronicles of Narnia, see Paul F. Ford's Companion to Narnia. The way Aslan's death is handled, for example, illustrates how Lewis draws parallels between the children's story and the story of Christ. When Susan and Lucy meet Aslan in the wood before his capture, Aslan says, "I should be glad of company tonight," and "I am sad and lonely. Furthermore, before killing Aslan, his captors shave him, spit on him, and jeer at him, an allusion probably to the torments Christ endured before being led to the cross Matthew The moment before the White Witch plunges the stone dagger into Aslan, she says, "In that knowledge, despair and die," another Christian reference to Christ's words on the cross about being forsaken and feeling despair before dying Matthew Aslan's self-sacrifice so that Edmund may live suggests Christ's self-sacrifice so that others may live John ; Matthew By sacrificing himself, Aslan satisfies the Deep Magic, which states that the penalty for the crime of treachery is death, an allusion perhaps to the penalty for sin under the Old Testament covenant Romans ; Hebrews But his sacrifice also satisfies the Deeper Magic, an incantation which causes Death to work backward when an innocent victim is sacrificed in a traitor's stead; the reference here seems to be to the remission of sins by Christ Jesus under the New Testament covenant Romans ; Hebrews In these and countless other ways, Lewis elevates the children's story to the level of Christian teaching or parable. Point of View Lewis weaves first, second, and third person points of view throughout the telling of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Sometimes he expresses his personal opinions first person , sometimes he addresses the reader directly second person , and sometimes he relays the action in the voice of a third-person narrator. When done well, this style can be very effective in children's stories because it emotionally engages readers and makes them feel as if they are part of the action. For example, when the narrator relates how the Pevensie children feel when they hear the name of Aslan for the first time, he conveys their sense of wonderment and excitement directly to the reader by suggesting the reader has perhaps experienced something as mysterious in a dream: And now a very curious thing happened. None of the children knew who Aslan was any more than you do; but the moment the Beaver had spoken these words everyone felt quite different. Perhaps it has sometimes happened to you in a dream that someone says something which you don't understand but in the dream it feels as if it had some enormous meaning—either a terrifying one which turns the whole dream into a nightmare or else a lovely meaning too lovely to put into words, which makes the dream so beautiful that you remember it all your life and you are always wishing you could get into that dream again. It was like that now. Another example occurs when the narrator describes the sadness Susan and Lucy feel after Aslan's death. He comforts the reader, too, as a person who also knows what grief is: "I hope no one who reads this book has been quite as miserable as Susan and Lucy were that night; but if you have been—if you've been up all night and cried till you have no more tears left in you—you will know that there comes in the end a sort of quietness. What makes this style even more effective is Lewis's familiar and friendly tone. The narrator does not feign omniscience to be all-knowing and is never condescending or patronizing. In fact, using direct address, Lewis puts himself on the same level as his readers, apparently addressing each one of them personally. This intimate tone may contribute to the book's popularity. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe lends itself to being read aloud, which is suitable for a children's book. The Battle of Britain The backdrop of the novel is Germany's World War II bombing attacks on London, which began in the summer or and stretched through the winter months into Britain had recently withdrawn , of its troops from France and had no remaining allies on the European continent, yet Winston Churchill refused to seek terms with Hitler. Hitler prepared a landing operation against England, called Operation Sea-Lion. German High Command realized, however, that such an operation could not be successfully carried out unless they had gained air superiority over the English Channel , and in August of German bombers began daily and nightly attacks on British factories, ports, and airfields. Then, Britain launched its own night bombing raids on Berlin. Furious, Hitler ordered his air force to focus less on military targets and more on the city of London itself. In the ensuing months, parents evacuated their children from the city and many London residents spent their nights in underground subway stations as Nazi bombers shelled the city. But the Germans were unable to break the spirit of the British people: civilian morale remained high, industrial production continued, and the British air-fighter command put up a heroic and inspired resistance in the night skies over London. These factors, combined with the sinking of numerous German invasion transports docked in their port in France, forced Hitler to continually postpone Operation Sea-Lion. The Battle of Britain may not have defeated Hitler in the short term, but it was a defensive victory that strengthened England's resolve to continue fighting until Hitler's defeat in The newly elected Labor government of implemented an austerity program due to worldwide shortages of food and raw materials that Britain needed to import. Food, clothing, and sources of energy were severely rationed; in , food rations were cut to well below wartime levels, and the use of gasoline by civilians was prohibited. Only when financial aid started funneling in from the Marshall Plan the U. But beyond the economic and political forces at work in post-war Britain, a more sinister spiritual force was starting to take hold: moral uncertainty. Belief in a moral universe of absolutes and faith in a benevolent God were shaken by awareness of war atrocities led many to the conclusion that theirs was not a culture of moral progress and development but a culture of death. Moreover, the future prospect of living under the cold war 's dark cloud of nuclear threat did nothing to strengthen a belief in mankind's capacity for goodness. As a result, church attendance in Great Britain steadily declined, and faith in a deity was replaced by faith in one's own ability to succeed in a world devoid of God. In response to this climate of skepticism and cynicism, Lewis wrote The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, a story which asserts that even in a universe corrupted by evil, there still exist beauty, truth standards of right and wrong , joy, and the presence of a benevolent creator who will eventually make all things right. Unable to export at high enough levels to meet the international balance of payments , England becomes a debtor country. Today: England is the world's fourth largest creditor country, with the highest percentage of this money being poured into German industry. Japan is the world's largest creditor country, while the United States , by contrast, is the world's largest debtor country. The stated U. Today: The cold war concludes in the early s, but the U. Great Britain cooperates with the U. Unlike pre-war children's literature, which according to Peter Hollindale and Zen Sutherland in Children's Literature: An Illustrated History expressed British imperialism and "domestic norms of social class and sexual roles," the post-war literature is "singularly free of prescriptive ideologies. As Hollindale and Sutherland state in Children's Literature: An Illustrated History, "From the s onwards another rule-book gain[s] authority, prescribing a new agenda of political correctness in matters of sex and gender, class and race, faithfully reflecting tensions and divisions in the adult political world. Perhaps the fact that it was a children's book, and a fairy tale at that, caused it to be overlooked by many critics and not taken seriously by others. Prince Caspian , the second book to be published in the Chronicles of Narnia, was more widely reviewed, probably due to the sales success of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and the fact that Lewis was beginning to stake his claim as a legitimate children's writer. Lack of critical attention aside, the reviews received by The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe were generally favorable, albeit not particularly analytical. One reviewer who had mixed opinions about the book was Chad Walsh, whose review of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe appeared in the November 12, , edition of the New York Times. He says he thought the book "well-written," adding that "one would expect that of the author of The Screwtape Letters," but found it lacked the "sense of the uncanny and magical that one finds in The Wind in the Willows and the writings of George MacDonald. I see that children like their fairy land folk matter of fact, whereas adults prefer them whimsical or numinous. With the reputation of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe as a children's classic already well established, this review's focus is on the reading of British actor Michael York, calling it "a nimble, enchanting performance. In the following essay, he analyzes common critical misconceptions of Father Christmas's place in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and offers an alternative perspective. The presence of Father Christmas in the land of Narnia has long been a source of puzzlement and consternation for critics and admirers of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and has resulted in a variety of conjectures as to his appropriateness and significance in the story. Unlike the character of Aslan, whose role is generally interpreted one way, Father Christmas remains an enigma. Some insist that Father Christmas is a jarring incongruity in this fairy tale world of nymphs, fauns, and talking animals. When Lucy and her siblings subsequently come to Narnia, they find that Tumnus has been arrested by Maugrim, Chief of the White Witch's secret police, and is awaiting trial on a charge of high treason which involves harbouring spies and fraternizing with humans. Tumnus had spoken to Mr. Beaver of his fears not long before his arrest and asked him to guide the four children if he found them in Narnia. The children meet Mr. Tumnus , and explains that Lucy has stumbled into Narnia, the land that stretches between the lamp-post and the castle of Cair Paravel on the Eastern Sea. Lucy notes that it is summer where she is from, and Mr. Tumnus sighs, telling Lucy that it has been winter in Narnia for a long while. He invites her to his home for food and cake, and though she is hesitant at first, she follows him over the little hills into a valley, where he lives in a cozy cave. By the time Lucy settles in the cave, she feels as if she has known Mr. Tumnus for a long time. Tumnus presents two little chairs: "one for me and one for a friend," he says. Lucy notices the books on the shelf, and enjoys the delicious tea. They share sardines on toast and cake, and Mr. Tumnus tells her stories of the forest, of Nymphs, Dryads, and Fauns, as well as the milk-white Stag who offers wishes if you catch him. The merry stories, however, belong to summertime in Narnia, and Mr. She hid fruits and snacks to eat and a lot of other stuff to. Digory noticed a door across the attic. After the year , C. Lewis was a devoted Christian and member of the Church of England. This means his faith when he wrote The Chronicles of Narnia was influential in what went into the writing of these stories. This influence was noticeable throughout all of the books in this series however it does not make the story automatically anything more then a great story.

Good essay why fracking is wrong Mr. Beaver finishes speaking, everyone notices Edmund is missing. They rush outside and call for him, but it is no use: he has gone to the White Witch.

Beaver's biggest concern is that Edmund heard everything about Aslan and the meeting at the Stone Table and is going to tell the Witch; she will then try to happen them before reaching Aslan. Beaver suggests they leave at once. Beaver spoke of the meeting with Aslan, stumbles over rocky and icy terrain to get to the Witch's house.

As he walks, he dreams about everything he will do as King, including getting even with Peter. The Witch's house, a creepy little castle with towers, what spires, and shadows, has a courtyard filled with stone statues of all essay of creatures. Edmund climbs some steps to the threshold of a doorway where Maugrim the wolf lies quietly.

Thinking Maugrim to be a statue like all the others, Edmund begins to step over him, but the huge wolf rises to block his way.

Narnia essay what happened to mr tumnus

Terrified, Edmund identifies himself and states his business. Maugrim fetches the White Witch, who is angry to see Edmund without his brother and sisters. Edmund explains that they are nearby, and he relates everything Mr. Beaver said about Aslan. The news about Aslan greatly startles the Witch. She orders her fat Dwarf to prepare the sledge. Beaver impatiently wait for Mrs. Beaver as she packs food, matches, and handkerchiefs for the journey.

After much fussing over what they should take, they finally set off and travel a great distance over ice and snow. Lucy is practically asleep on her feet what Mr. Beaver happens them to a secret hiding place in the ground where they essay for the night. They awake to the sound of sleigh bells. Up above, Father Christmas waits in his sledge with presents for everybody: Mrs.

Beaver gets a new sewing machine delivered straight to her house, and Mr. Beaver gets a finished and how necessary is a college education speech essay repaired dam.

Narnia essay what happened to mr tumnus

Peter receives a sword and a shield, and Susan gets a bow, a quiver full of arrows, and an ivory horn that summons help whenever blown. Lucy receives a dagger college board essay rubric pdf Father Christmas essays her she is not to fight in the battle and a cordial of special healing juice.

Before leaving, Father Christmas breaks out one final present: hot tea for everyone. The children and the Beavers share an enjoyable happen before moving on.

He asks for Turkish Delight and the fat Dwarf brings him dry bread and what instead.

Mr. Tumnus - Wikipedia

Then, after ordering Maugrim and his swiftest wolves to hunt down the Beavers and humans, the Witch forces Edmund to go with her in her sledge on a long, cold journey to the Stone Table.

En route, they pass a merry party of creatures feasting in the wood. This sight of such happiness angers the Witch, and when they tell her Father Christmas gave them the food, she becomes enraged. Despite Edmund's pleas, the Witch turns them all to stone then smacks Edmund hard on the face for asking happens for spies and traitors. They continue on, but their journey is slowed by a sudden thaw: the sledge keeps getting stuck in the mud. The Dwarf binds Edmund's hands, and they begin to walk.

Trees bud, flowers bloom, and birds sing all around them. Spring has arrived, and, the Dwarf exclaims, it is Aslan's doing. The Witch responds, "If either of you mentions that name again … he shall instantly be killed.

Music heralds the approach of Aslan, who enters a pavilion surrounded by many forest animals and mythological creatures. Aslan welcomes the children and Beavers and says that all will be done to save Edmund, though it will not be easy. As a feast is being prepared, Aslan leads Peter to the eastern edge of the hilltop and shows him Cair Paravel, the far-off castle where Peter is to be king. Suddenly, the sound of Susan's horn summons Peter to battle. Maugrim and another wolf have infiltrated the camp, and to his horror, Peter sees Maugrim chase Susan up a essay.

Peter kills Maugrim with his sword, and the other wolf darts away. Aslan orders his swiftest creatures after it, announcing that it will lead them to Edmund and the Witch. But just as the Witch is sharpening her stone knife, Aslan's rescue party arrives. Edmund is saved, but the Witch and the Dwarf escape using her magic. The next morning Edmund has a private conversation with Aslan that Edmund always remembers.

Aslan then delivers Edmund to his siblings, telling them there is no good zingers for essays to speak of what has passed.

Later, the Witch arrives and pronounces Edmund a traitor. She further proclaims that, according to the Law of the Deep Magic, she has the right to kill all traitors.

Aslan requests a private conference with the Witch, during which they arrive at an agreement that will spare Edmund's life. The Queen, with "a look of fierce joy on her face," asks Aslan how she knows he will keep his promise. Aslan responds with a terrible half laugh, half roar.

He then discusses battle plans with Peter, telling him that he will be the one to lead the campaign. That night, Susan and Lucy find Aslan walking forlornly through the moonlit woods.

He is sad but tells the girls he would be grateful if they walked with him for a while with their hands on his mane. They presently arrive at the hill leading up to the Stone Table, and Aslan says they must here part company.

The girls cry uncontrollably as Aslan leaves and heads for the Stone Table, where the White Witch and her evil minions await. They bind, shave, and torture Aslan what dragging him onto the Stone Table. Susan and Lucy, watching from a safe distance, expect Aslan to fight back at any moment, but he never does. The Witch tells Aslan that his death accomplishes nothing because she is going to kill Edmund anyway.

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Susan and Lucy cannot essay to watch as the Witch drives her knife into Aslan's heart. They remove Aslan's muzzle but cannot unbind him because the knots are too tight. Suddenly, hundreds of little happen mice appear and chew through the cords.

The girls sit with Aslan all night, holding him and crying. At dawn they go for a walk to warm themselves and are startled by a thunderous cracking sound.

They turn to see the Stone Table split and Aslan's body gone.

Soon after exploring Narnia, she meets Mr. Tumnus, the faun who invited her for tea. As soon as he reveals that he is actually a spy for the queen, and as soon as he saw the Daughter of Eve, he was to turn her in.

Just as they wonder what it all means, Aslan, alive and well and standing behind them in the sunlight, explains: the Witch did not account for the Deeper Magic, which states that death will work backward when a willing victim who committed no crime is sacrificed in a traitor's stead. Overjoyed, Susan and Lucy shower Aslan with kisses, and they run and play all around the hilltop. Aslan lets out an earth-shaking roar, tells the girls to hop on his back, and off they go to the Witch's castle.

When they arrive, Aslan makes a flying leap over the wall into the courtyard filled with stone statues. Chapter Sixteen: What Happened about the Statues Aslan frees the statues, one by one, by breathing best video game essays on youtube them.

Before long, the whole courtyard erupts in joy. Susan gets a bit nervous when Aslan breathes on the Giant Rumblebuffin's feet, thinking it may not be safe, but Rumblebuffin happens out to be a friendly giant.

One of the last statues to be freed is Mr. Tumnus, and he and Lucy dance for joy at their reuniting. Giant Rumblebuffin knocks down the gates with his giant club so they can get out, and Aslan leads the charge to the battlefront.

They arrive to discover Peter's army badly depleted and fighting desperately. Stone statues dot the battlefield, so it is obvious the Witch has been using her wand, but at that moment, she is fighting Peter with her stone knife. Aslan erupts with another earth-shaking roar and hurls himself on the White Witch. Peter's tired army cheers, and the newcomers join in the fight. Peter says Edmund saved the day by smashing the Witch's wand to prevent her from turning any more of their army into stone, but in so doing Edmund was badly wounded.

Lucy pours a few drops from her cordial into Edmund's mouth, he recovers fully, and Aslan knights him on the spot. The Pevensies reign for many years, until one day they go on a hunt for the White Stag, believing that the White Stag will grant wishes to anyone who can catch him. They chase him into a thicket, where they discover a vaguely familiar lamppost.

Thinking some new adventure or unexpected treasure awaits, they venture past it. Within moments, the children tumble out of the wardrobe into the spare room.

Macready and the guests are still out in the corridor. The children run to tell the Professor all that has happened, and he says that someday they will return to Narnia, but it will be when they least expect it. His purpose is clear the moment he returns to Narnia: to overthrow evil by serving others. The thawing of the witch's essay and renewing of spring comprise the first phase of Aslan's service, followed by the giving of gifts to the Pevensie children and the creatures of the wood through Father Christmas.

After the children arrive at the Stone Table, Aslan serves them all with his hospitality, but Peter he serves more specifically by teaching him how to think and act like a military leader. Aslan's service to Edmund is threefold: he sends his forces to rescue Edmund from the White Witch, has a talk with Edmund that changes Edmund's life for the better, and, in the ultimate selfless act, sacrifices his life so that Edmund may live.

At the same time, Aslan is saving all of Narnia from destruction in accordance with the Deep Magic, which states that unless life is forfeit in payment for the crime of treachery, Narnia will be destroyed by fire and water. While the witch thinks she has won the final victory and taken control of Narnia forever, Aslan knows that victory will be his because of the Deeper Magic, what states that death will work backward when a willing victim who committed no crime is sacrificed in a traitor's stead.

In performing the ultimate service for Edmund and for Narnia, Aslan is able to return to life and complete his purpose. His next two acts of service bring a speedy end to evil's reign: He breathes life back into the stone statues and kills the White Witch in his jaws. The final phase of Aslan's service is to crown the Pevensie children kings and queens of Narnia, after which he leaves to tend to his other countries. Beaver Mr. Beaver is a wise, hardworking, and practical creature dedicated to the cause of good in the battle against evil in Narnia, and due to his unwavering faith in Aslan and belief in the fulfillment of the ancient prophecies, he takes it upon himself to lead the Sons of Adam and Daughters of Eve to Aslan.

When he hears they have entered Narnia, he springs into action. At great risk to his life, Mr. Beaver befriends the Pevensie children in the wood, warns them that the witch's spies are everywhere, and invites them into his home.

From there, he leads his wife and three of the children on a dangerous journey to meet Aslan, the one who map mapping about topic essay save Edmund and all of Narnia from the White Witch. At the children's coronation, Mr. Beaver is rewarded and honored for his faith and service. Beaver Mrs. Beaver, the kind wife of Mr. Beaver, is dedicated to helping, comforting, and providing for others.

The fact that her sewing machine is her most valuable possession reveals the extent of her dedication. With the help of her husband, she cooks a sumptuous meal for the Pevensie children, then, with little help from her husband, packs food for their journey to the Stone Table. Beaver and the children are in a great hurry to leave and feel that Mrs. Beaver is wasting valuable time by packing a dinner. During the arduous journey, however, they are grateful for her foresight.

The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe Summary

Tumnus, despite knowing that the Witch will find out and is likely to punish him severely if he disobeys her orders, quickly realises that he can't bring himself to give Lucy up to the Witch, so he guides her back to the lamp-post to see that she returns safely to her own world. When Lucy returns to Narnia a few days later, Tumnus is still safe: evidently the White Witch hasn't discovered his disobedience.

However, Lucy's brother Edmund enters Narnia shortly afterwards and mentions to the White Witch that his sister had visited Narnia before and met a faun - even though he does not name the faun as Tumnus. When Lucy and her siblings subsequently come to Narnia, they find that Tumnus has been arrested by Maugrim, Chief of the White Witch's secret police, and is awaiting trial on a charge of high treason which involves harbouring spies and fraternizing with humans.

Lucy and Edmund arrive back in the spare room. Lucy notices that Edmund looks ill, and he feels quite sick but says he's Uw summer stretch essay writing. Lucy sets out to find Peter and Susan and tell them about the latest adventure. Lucy bursts out with her news: her story is true, Narnia is real, and Edmund has been there, too!

Edmund lies and says that he and Lucy were just playing, pretending that her country in the wardrobe was real, but it was all make-believe. Lucy, crushed, runs personal essay russell sage of the room.

Edmund tries to act superior, but Peter tells him ap spanish persuasive essay plastic surgery recording shut up and stop egging Lucy on.

Edmund says that it's all nonsense, and Peter says that's the problem — he's worried that Lucy is what crazy, and thinks that Edmund is making it worse.

Susan makes peace between Peter and Edmund. All three of them go and find Lucy, who has obviously been crying. Lucy sticks to her story. After all, it's the truth. All evening, Lucy is miserable, Edmund is uncomfortable, and Peter and Susan worry that their little sister is losing her mind. The next morning, Peter and Susan go to the Professor.

Remember him — the kind old man who owns the big country house the children are staying in? They sit in the Professor's study and tell him the whole story. The Professor listens without interrupting. At the end of the story, he asks how they know that Lucy's story isn't true. Susan is taken aback. She mentions that Edmund said they were only pretending, and the Professor asks whether Edmund or Lucy is usually more truthful. Peter says that, until now, Lucy was always more reliable. Susan suggests that Lucy could be mad, but the Professor says that she's obviously sane.

Finally, the Professor puts college level essay competitions case to Peter and Susan logically: either Lucy is telling lies, or crazy, or telling the truth.

She's never happened lies before, and she's obviously not crazy, so they have to assume that she's telling the truth. Peter asks how Lucy's story could possibly be real. He thinks that real things are always there, and clearly sometimes the wardrobe isn't a doorway to another world. The Professor isn't so sure of this. Susan mentions the time discrepancy — the way Lucy said she had been gone for hours, while only a few moments passed for everyone else.

The Professor says this supports her story: if there is another world, time works differently there, but that's not the kind of thing that a little girl making up a story would think about and fake.

Finally Susan asks what they should do, and the Professor essays that everyone should mind their own business. With that, the conversation is over. For a while, things go on as usual, and none of the children mention Narnia to each other. The narrator explains to us that the Professor's house is famous, mentioned in guidebooks, and sightseers often come to see it. When they do, the housekeeper, Mrs. Macready, shows them around.

Macready dislikes the children, and they are supposed to stay out of the way when she's giving tours. One day, the children are examining an old suit of armor when they hear Mrs. Macready and some visitors coming toward them. They quickly move to another room, but, no matter where they go, the tourists seem to be right behind them. Eventually, they find themselves in the spare room, and all four of them are forced to hide in the wardrobe!

Chapter 6 Into the Forest As the essay children hide in the wardrobe from the housekeeper Mrs. Macready, Peter and Susan begin to notice that it's cold and wet. Daylight shines in, and they find themselves with fur coats on one side of them and a winter landscape on the other side.

They're in Narnia! Peter immediately turns to Lucy and apologizes for not believing her story. Lucy accepts his apology. Peter wants to explore the what. Susan convinces him that first they should put on the fur coats — after all, the whole land of Narnia seems to be inside the wardrobe, so they won't even be taking the coats out of the cupboard!

Wearing the fur coats, which are so long that they look like robes, the four children set out to explore. Edmund suggests that they need to head to the left more to find the lamp-post. This causes Peter and Susan to realize that Edmund was actually in Narnia before and lied about it to make Lucy look bad. Peter, especially, is disgusted. Edmund is disgruntled by Peter's response. Peter and Susan let Lucy decide where to go, and she opts to take them to see Mr.

Tumnus the Faun. When the children arrive at Mr.

When they reach the lamp-post, Lucy sees the wardrobe door. Tumnus asks to keep her handkerchief, and she agrees, fleeing for the door, and reentering the wardrobe. She finds herself back in the empty room, and calls out to the others, who she can hear in the passageway, and yells, "I've come back, I'm all right. She is: 1 a girl; 2 a Daughter of Eve; and 3 a human. These three facts cleverly allude to three different ways of reading the story. The story is a children's story about "a girl", but can also be read as a tale about the Christian faith. Lucy can therefore also be viewed as "a Daughter of Eve", a clear reference to the Genesis story of how God created Adam and Eve. Lucy is, however, also a "human", which hints that the story of Narnia can be read as a human story; a universal coming-of-age lesson. Lewis himself never indicates a preference for how the story ought to be read; his concern lay more with the breadth of his audience, as well as his desire to fill their hearts with the power of his story. Just as a line of poetry may strike at the chord of an emotion, a good story reveals an essential fact about life itself. Lucy, having confirmed the three possible identities, follows Mr. Tumnus deeper into the wood, to his home. There, they strike up a friendship as they share food and Mr. Tumnus educates Lucy about the forest. Aslan sends some Centaurs and Eagles to follow a second Wolf, which was lurking in the trees, and rescue Edmund. Aslan reminds Peter to clean his sword. Peter wipes his sword clean on the grass, and then Aslan uses the sword to dub Peter a knight. Chapter 13 Deep Magic from the Dawn of Time The Witch marches Edmund and the Dwarf a long ways until they come to a dark valley in the shadow of yew and fir trees. Edmund lies down on his face, exhausted. The Witch and the Dwarf argue about what they should do. The Dwarf says that they are too late and the other children will already be at the Stone Table. The Witch says that Fenris Ulf, the Wolf captain, may bring them good news. It occurs to the Witch that the prophecy requires four human beings to fill the thrones at Cair Paravel. She considers murdering Edmund so that there will only be three, and then, after Aslan leaves, she could attack the others. The Dwarf suggests that they might need Edmund, as a hostage, to bargain with. The Witch doesn't want to take the chance that he might escape or be rescued. The Dwarf says that, if they're going to kill Edmund, they should do it right away. The Witch wants to kill him on the Stone Table, which she says is the proper place for sacrifices. The Dwarf points out that Aslan's people hold the Stone Table. The Witch agrees to murder Edmund right where they are. The other Wolf runs up and tells them that Peter slew Fenris Ulf and that some of Aslan's army are following him. He tells the Witch that she should run. The Witch orders the Wolf to gather all the evil creatures to her. The Wolf runs off to carry out her orders. The Witch and the Dwarf tie Edmund to a tree trunk and fold back his clothes so that his neck is exposed. Edmund hears the sound of a knife being sharpened. Just as the Witch is preparing to kill Edmund, the centaurs and eagles and other creatures that Aslan sent in pursuit of the Wolf arrive. The Witch screams and everything is confused. Edmund is untied and laid down on the ground. His rescuers give him a little wine to revive him. In the background, Edmund can hear his other rescuers talking about the Witch and the Dwarf, who have escaped. Edmund faints. While he is unconscious, they carry him back to the Stone Table. After Aslan's people leave with Edmund, a tree stump and a boulder in the clearing turn back into the White Witch and the Dwarf. The Witch used her magic powers to disguise them. She still has her wand. In the morning, Lucy, Susan, and Peter are told by Mrs. Beaver that Edmund has been rescued. Aslan and Edmund have a long, private talk. Nobody else knows what is said, but Edmund is a different person from this day forward. Aslan brings Edmund back to his brother and sisters. Edmund apologizes to everyone and they all forgive him. The Witch's Dwarf arrives. Aslan agrees to let him approach, and the Dwarf demands safe conduct for the Witch to come and speak to Aslan. Beaver objects to the Dwarf calling the Witch "Queen of Narnia. Aslan agrees to let the Witch approach if she leaves her wand behind. The Dwarf agrees and Aslan's lions go with him to enforce this pact. The Witch comes forward and stands before Aslan. Everyone feels frightened and cold at the sight of her. Beaver notices that the Witch can't look Aslan directly in the eyes. The Witch accuses Edmund of being a traitor. Aslan says that his offense was not against her. The Witch reminds Aslan of the Deep Magic, which was written on the Stone Table by the Emperor at the beginning of time: the Witch has the right to punish traitors, and their lives are forfeit to her. Aslan's army is defiant, but Aslan says that the Witch is right: she has the right to have blood as payment for Edmund's treachery. If she doesn't get it, then Narnia will be destroyed in fire and water. Susan asks Aslan if they can work against the Deep Magic. Aslan's frown is so severe that nobody asks this again. During the exchange, Edmund wonders if he should say or do something, but he feels like he is just supposed to wait and do what he is told. Aslan tells his followers to fall back so that he can talk to the Witch alone. While Aslan and the Witch have their private conference, everyone waits and wonders what will happen. Eventually, Aslan calls them back and says that the Witch has renounced her claim on Edmund's blood. As the Witch leaves, she asks Aslan how she can know that he will keep his promise. Aslan roars and she runs away. Nobody wants to ask what's going on or what he promised the Witch. Aslan's people eat a meal, then pack and move their pavilion. While they are marching to their new campsite, Aslan explains the tactical situation to Peter. He outlines one plan for Peter to follow if the Witch and her followers reach her castle and wait to be besieged, and another plan for Peter to follow if Aslan's army is able to intercept her before she gets there. Peter doesn't understand why Aslan is explaining everything to him — won't Aslan be there himself? But Aslan says he can't promise that. After Aslan finishes giving Peter instructions, he spends the rest of the journey with Susan and Lucy. He says little and seems sad. They arrive at the Fords of Beruna and Aslan orders them to set up camp. Peter wants to camp on the far side of the river to protect them from a night attack, but Aslan says it doesn't matter. Because Aslan is downcast, everyone feels depressed as they eat dinner and go to sleep at their new campsite. Susan and Lucy can't fall asleep and begin talking. They both feel that something is wrong with Aslan and that something bad is going to happen soon. They decide to go look for him. The girls creep out of their tent and see Aslan leaving. They follow him, and he leads them back toward the Stone Table, retracing their steps from earlier in the day. In an open space, Aslan sees the girls following him in the moonlight. He asks why they have come, and Lucy says they couldn't sleep. Susan asks if they can come with him. Aslan says he will be glad of their company, but they will have to stop when he tells them and let him go on alone. They agree. Aslan, Susan, and Lucy walk on together. Aslan is clearly depressed; his head droops and his tail hangs, and he moans occasionally. Lucy and Susan beg him to tell them what is wrong, but he won't. He asks them to lay their hands in his mane as they walk together, and they do. They arrive at the top of the hill where the Stone Table is located. Aslan tells Susan and Lucy to stop and not to let themselves be seen. Then he says goodbye. Susan and Lucy weep and kiss Aslan goodbye. Then he walks away from them. The girls hide in the bushes and watch as Aslan walks toward the Stone Table. The clearing is full of many different evil creatures, from ogres to wolves to hags and beyond. In the center the White Witch stands by the Stone Table. When Aslan comes into sight, the evil army lets out a great howl. The Witch laughs, calls Aslan a fool, and orders her people to tie him to the Stone Table. Susan and Lucy expect Aslan to destroy these creatures, but instead he remains motionless and allows them to tie him up. Before they put him on the table, an ogre shaves Aslan's beautiful golden mane with a pair of shears. When Aslan is shaved, the others taunt and mock him. Lucy, looking at his face, notices how brave and patient he looks. Next, the creatures put a muzzle on Aslan. Although he could bite off their hands, he doesn't move. Once Aslan is completely immobilized, the creatures beat him, kicking and hitting, and also spit on him and continue to insult and mock him. Eventually, the evil mob is tired of tormenting Aslan. They drag him to the Stone Table, heave him up on it, and tie him down. The Witch bares her arms and sharpens her stone knife. Aslan looks at the sky, quiet and sad. Before the Witch kills Aslan, she tells him that his sacrifice will not help: after he is dead, she and her army will kill Edmund and his family anyway, and she will rule Narnia forever! Susan and Lucy hide their eyes because they can't bear to watch as the Witch kills Aslan. Chapter 15 Deeper Magic from Before the Dawn of Time With Aslan dead, the Witch calls her followers to her and they move in a wild mob toward Aslan's army, intending to carry out a surprise attack. Lucy and Susan, still hiding in the bushes, are briefly in danger as the evil creatures pass close by them. They cry and mourn for a long time. Eventually, when they seem to have run out of tears, Lucy suggests that they take off Aslan's muzzle. They do, and it sets them crying again. Susan suggests that they untie Aslan's body from the table, but the knots are so tight that they can't. For a long time, Susan and Lucy wait, quiet and shocked. Nothing seems to matter anymore. Time passes. It gets colder. Lucy notices that it's beginning to get light outside. She also notices something moving in the grass — mice! The mice crawl up onto Aslan's body. Susan tries to shoo them away, but Lucy points out that the mice are eating through the cords that tie Aslan's body to the Stone Table. It gets brighter; the sunrise has almost started. Only one star is visible, a big bright star on the Eastern horizon. The mice finish eating through all of Aslan's bindings and creep away. It continues to get brighter. Birds start to sing. Susan and Lucy feel cold and decide to walk around a little bit. They go to the edge of the hill and look east. The large star is no longer visible. Susan and Lucy pace between Aslan's body and the edge of the hill, trying to stay warm. They feel cold and tired. Finally, while the girls are looking east toward the castle of Cair Paravel, the edge of the sun peeks up over the horizon. At the same moment, behind them there is an enormous cracking, thunder-like noise. Lucy and Susan assume that the evil creatures are mutilating Aslan's corpse and run back toward the Stone Table. When they get there, the Stone Table is broken completely in half and Aslan's body is gone! Susan wonders if this is more magic, and a voice from behind her says that it is. The girls turn around, only to see Aslan, alive and larger than before, standing behind them. The girls are both happy and scared. Aslan assures them that he was dead, but isn't anymore, and that he is not a ghost. Susan and Lucy hug and kiss Aslan with great joy. Once the girls calm down, Susan asks Aslan to explain. Aslan tells her that the Witch's knowledge only goes back to the Dawn of Time, but that there is a deeper magic from before the Dawn of Time that she didn't know about. According to this deeper magic, when an innocent, willing victim was executed in the place of a traitor, the Stone Table would crack and Death would work backwards. For a while, Aslan frolics and leaps about, enjoying his returning strength. Lucy and Susan play a strange game of tag with him, in which they all run around and sometimes Aslan catches them and tosses them gently in the air, and sometimes they roll around on the ground and wrestle. At the end of the game, the girls no longer feel hungry or thirsty or tired. Next, the girls plug their ears while Aslan lets out a terrible roar. Aslan invites Lucy and Susan to ride on him. Once they are mounted, he rushes down into the forest. For hours, they enjoy the ride, as Aslan runs swiftly through the beautiful Narnian countryside. Around the middle of the day, they arrive at the Witch's castle. Aslan leaps over the walls into the courtyard. Chapter 16 What Happened About the Statues Lucy is amazed to see the Witch's courtyard; she thinks all the statues make it look like a museum. Aslan begins bounding around, pouncing and romping like a big cat. Each time he comes near one of the statues, he breathes on it. Lucy and Susan realize that Aslan's breath is un-petrifying the statues, turning stone back into the people and creatures of Narnia! First, Aslan turns the statue of a lion back into a real lion. The real lion is excited to see Aslan and follows him around. Soon the courtyard is full of different people and creatures laughing and talking. Susan notices Aslan arrive at the feet of the stone giant. She's worried that the giant might not be friendly, but once Aslan has breathed on his feet and restored him to health, Giant Rumblebuffin turns out to be the Witch's enemy and their friend. After they finish with the courtyard, Aslan instructs everyone to go into the Witch's house and find all the other prisoners and statues. While they are ransacking the Witch's castle, Lucy finds Mr. Tumnus, who has indeed been turned to stone. Aslan breathes on him and soon he and Lucy are having a happy reunion! Finally, everyone has been rescued. Aslan has Giant Rumblebuffin smash the walls of the courtyard with his club and everyone emerges into the woods. Giant Rumblebuffin is sweaty after working hard to destroy the walls, so Lucy lends him her handkerchief to mop his face. The handkerchief is far too small for him, but he is very polite and thanks Lucy anyway. Tumnus tells Lucy that all the Buffins are good giants. Aslan organizes everyone for the journey across country back to the site of the battle, where they need to join in and help Peter, Edmund, and everyone else. The other lion is flattered and excited to help Aslan, but not very helpful. Eventually, they set off. The animals that can track scents — dogs and lions and wolves — pick up the scent of the army and lead the way. The animals that can run trot along behind them, with everyone else riding on their backs. Lucy and Susan ride on Aslan. As they come to the end of the valley and onto the plain, Lucy is able to hear the sounds of the battle — metal clashing against metal, shouting, and shrieking. On the battlefield, Peter, Edmund, and the rest of Aslan's army are valiantly holding their ground against the Witch's forces, even though they are outnumbered and exhausted. There are statues everywhere, but the Witch seems to have lost her wand and is using the stone knife to fight Peter. Lucy and Susan get off Aslan's back and he rushes toward the Witch and pounces on her! The people and creatures that Aslan has freed from the Witch's castle rush into the battle, acting as reinforcements. Most of the evil creatures are dead and the rest flee. Peter and Aslan shake hands. Peter tells Aslan that Edmund changed the course of the battle by attacking the Witch and destroying her magic wand. Once she couldn't turn anyone to stone, she had no advantage. Edmund has been badly wounded. Aslan reminds Lucy that she has the flask of magic medicine. She pours a few drops into Edmund's mouth. Lucy wants to wait to see if Edmund will recover, but Aslan reminds her that there are many other wounded people who need her help. For about half an hour, Lucy and Aslan go around and care for the casualties on their side of the battle. Lucy heals the wounded with her magic cordial, and Aslan un-petrifies the people who were turned to stone. This sight of such happiness angers the Witch, and when they tell her Father Christmas gave them the food, she becomes enraged. Despite Edmund's pleas, the Witch turns them all to stone then smacks Edmund hard on the face for asking favors for spies and traitors. They continue on, but their journey is slowed by a sudden thaw: the sledge keeps getting stuck in the mud. The Dwarf binds Edmund's hands, and they begin to walk. Trees bud, flowers bloom, and birds sing all around them. Spring has arrived, and, the Dwarf exclaims, it is Aslan's doing. The Witch responds, "If either of you mentions that name again … he shall instantly be killed. Music heralds the approach of Aslan, who enters a pavilion surrounded by many forest animals and mythological creatures. Aslan welcomes the children and Beavers and says that all will be done to save Edmund, though it will not be easy. As a feast is being prepared, Aslan leads Peter to the eastern edge of the hilltop and shows him Cair Paravel, the far-off castle where Peter is to be king. Suddenly, the sound of Susan's horn summons Peter to battle. Maugrim and another wolf have infiltrated the camp, and to his horror, Peter sees Maugrim chase Susan up a tree. Peter kills Maugrim with his sword, and the other wolf darts away. Aslan orders his swiftest creatures after it, announcing that it will lead them to Edmund and the Witch. But just as the Witch is sharpening her stone knife, Aslan's rescue party arrives. Edmund is saved, but the Witch and the Dwarf escape using her magic. The next morning Edmund has a private conversation with Aslan that Edmund always remembers. Aslan then delivers Edmund to his siblings, telling them there is no need to speak of what has passed. Later, the Witch arrives and pronounces Edmund a traitor. She further proclaims that, according to the Law of the Deep Magic, she has the right to kill all traitors. Aslan requests a private conference with the Witch, during which they arrive at an agreement that will spare Edmund's life. The Queen, with "a look of fierce joy on her face," asks Aslan how she knows he will keep his promise. Aslan responds with a terrible half laugh, half roar. He then discusses battle plans with Peter, telling him that he will be the one to lead the campaign. That night, Susan and Lucy find Aslan walking forlornly through the moonlit woods. He is sad but tells the girls he would be grateful if they walked with him for a while with their hands on his mane. They presently arrive at the hill leading up to the Stone Table, and Aslan says they must here part company. The girls cry uncontrollably as Aslan leaves and heads for the Stone Table, where the White Witch and her evil minions await. They bind, shave, and torture Aslan before dragging him onto the Stone Table. Susan and Lucy, watching from a safe distance, expect Aslan to fight back at any moment, but he never does. The Witch tells Aslan that his death accomplishes nothing because she is going to kill Edmund anyway. Susan and Lucy cannot bear to watch as the Witch drives her knife into Aslan's heart. They remove Aslan's muzzle but cannot unbind him because the knots are too tight. Suddenly, hundreds of little field mice appear and chew through the cords. The girls sit with Aslan all night, holding him and crying. At dawn they go for a walk to warm themselves and are startled by a thunderous cracking sound. They turn to see the Stone Table split and Aslan's body gone. Just as they wonder what it all means, Aslan, alive and well and standing behind them in the sunlight, explains: the Witch did not account for the Deeper Magic, which states that death will work backward when a willing victim who committed no crime is sacrificed in a traitor's stead. Overjoyed, Susan and Lucy shower Aslan with kisses, and they run and play all around the hilltop. Aslan lets out an earth-shaking roar, tells the girls to hop on his back, and off they go to the Witch's castle. When they arrive, Aslan makes a flying leap over the wall into the courtyard filled with stone statues. Chapter Sixteen: What Happened about the Statues Aslan frees the statues, one by one, by breathing on them. Before long, the whole courtyard erupts in joy. Susan gets a bit nervous when Aslan breathes on the Giant Rumblebuffin's feet, thinking it may not be safe, but Rumblebuffin turns out to be a friendly giant. One of the last statues to be freed is Mr. Tumnus, and he and Lucy dance for joy at their reuniting. Giant Rumblebuffin knocks down the gates with his giant club so they can get out, and Aslan leads the charge to the battlefront. They arrive to discover Peter's army badly depleted and fighting desperately. Stone statues dot the battlefield, so it is obvious the Witch has been using her wand, but at that moment, she is fighting Peter with her stone knife. Aslan erupts with another earth-shaking roar and hurls himself on the White Witch. Peter's tired army cheers, and the newcomers join in the fight. Peter says Edmund saved the day by smashing the Witch's wand to prevent her from turning any more of their army into stone, but in so doing Edmund was badly wounded. Lucy pours a few drops from her cordial into Edmund's mouth, he recovers fully, and Aslan knights him on the spot. The Pevensies reign for many years, until one day they go on a hunt for the White Stag, believing that the White Stag will grant wishes to anyone who can catch him. They chase him into a thicket, where they discover a vaguely familiar lamppost. Thinking some new adventure or unexpected treasure awaits, they venture past it. Within moments, the children tumble out of the wardrobe into the spare room. Macready and the guests are still out in the corridor. The children run to tell the Professor all that has happened, and he says that someday they will return to Narnia, but it will be when they least expect it. His purpose is clear the moment he returns to Narnia: to overthrow evil by serving others. The thawing of the witch's winter and renewing of spring comprise the first phase of Aslan's service, followed by the giving of gifts to the Pevensie children and the creatures of the wood through Father Christmas. After the children arrive at the Stone Table, Aslan serves them all with his hospitality, but Peter he serves more specifically by teaching him how to think and act like a military leader. Aslan's service to Edmund is threefold: he sends his forces to rescue Edmund from the White Witch, has a talk with Edmund that changes Edmund's life for the better, and, in the ultimate selfless act, sacrifices his life so that Edmund may live. At the same time, Aslan is saving all of Narnia from destruction in accordance with the Deep Magic, which states that unless life is forfeit in payment for the crime of treachery, Narnia will be destroyed by fire and water. While the witch thinks she has won the final victory and taken control of Narnia forever, Aslan knows that victory will be his because of the Deeper Magic, which states that death will work backward when a willing victim who committed no crime is sacrificed in a traitor's stead. In performing the ultimate service for Edmund and for Narnia, Aslan is able to return to life and complete his purpose. His next two acts of service bring a speedy end to evil's reign: He breathes life back into the stone statues and kills the White Witch in his jaws. The final phase of Aslan's service is to crown the Pevensie children kings and queens of Narnia, after which he leaves to tend to his other countries. Beaver Mr. Beaver is a wise, hardworking, and practical creature dedicated to the cause of good in the battle against evil in Narnia, and due to his unwavering faith in Aslan and belief in the fulfillment of the ancient prophecies, he takes it upon himself to lead the Sons of Adam and Daughters of Eve to Aslan. When he hears they have entered Narnia, he springs into action. At great risk to his life, Mr. Beaver befriends the Pevensie children in the wood, warns them that the witch's spies are everywhere, and invites them into his home. From there, he leads his wife and three of the children on a dangerous journey to meet Aslan, the one who will save Edmund and all of Narnia from the White Witch. At the children's coronation, Mr. Beaver is rewarded and honored for his faith and service. Beaver Mrs. Beaver, the kind wife of Mr. Beaver, is dedicated to helping, comforting, and providing for others. The fact that her sewing machine is her most valuable possession reveals the extent of her dedication. With the help of her husband, she cooks a sumptuous meal for the Pevensie children, then, with little help from her husband, packs food for their journey to the Stone Table. Beaver and the children are in a great hurry to leave and feel that Mrs. Beaver is wasting valuable time by packing a dinner. During the arduous journey, however, they are grateful for her foresight. She comforts and nurses the wounded Edmund, and she sweetly takes her husband's hand while awaiting the outcome of the private talk between Aslan and the White Witch. Beaver is dearly loved by the children, and they bestow gifts and honors upon her at their coronation. He is never seen, but his presence is felt in the discussions about the Deep and Deeper Magic. His "hangman," as Mr. Beaver calls her, is the White Witch, who delights in being able to bring about death, but as it was written in the Deeper Magic, death is not final, and the Emperor sends Aslan to Narnia to reveal this truth. Father Christmas Unlike the jolly Santa Claus depicted on the other side of the wardrobe, Father Christmas is big, glad, and most significantly, real. They do, however, have the white beard and bright red robe in common. To see him makes the children both glad and solemn at the same time. His arrival is a sign that the Witch's spell is weakening and that Aslan has returned. He is Aslan's helper and gives the Pevensie children—as well as all the creatures of the wood—gifts to help them continue in their fight against evil. The Lion The lion was turned to stone by White Witch in her courtyard, and his statue terrifies Edmund at first glance. When Edmund realizes that the lion is made of stone, he mocks this king of beasts by drawing a moustache and a pair of glasses on his face. Aslan, however, shows that he holds lions in highest regard among creatures by breathing on the stone lion first. A bit later, Aslan astounds this relatively simple-minded lion when he refers to the two of them together as "Us Lions: "Those who are good with their noses must come in the front with us lions to smell out where the battle is. The children further honor and reward the lion at their coronation. Macready Mrs. Macready, the Professor's housekeeper, is not particularly fond of children. It is her job to take visitors on guided tours of the house, and she gives the children strict instructions to stay out of her way when she is bringing visitors through the house. The children's adventure in Narnia begins and ends on a day when Macready is leading a tour; in order to stay out her way, the children hide in the wardrobe and make their way into Narnia. When they return, Mrs. Macready is still with the visitors. He is quite crafty, as is evident when he pretends to be one of the Witch's statues in order to take Edmund by surprise, but his inability to manage his anger proves to be his downfall. After Maugrim chases Susan up a tree, Peter lashes out at him with his sword. Peter misses, but the audacity of the action enrages Maugrim so much that he has to howl, giving Peter just enough time to plunge his sword into Maugrim's heart. Edmund Pevensie Edmund, the second youngest of the Pevensie children and the bad one of the bunch, despises the high-minded superiority of his older brother, Peter, and the maternal control of his sister Susan. The only sibling he is older than is Lucy, and he takes his discontent out on her with a vengeance. He mocks and teases endlessly after she tells of her experience through the wardrobe and maliciously betrays her by denying her story about Narnia to Peter and Susan even after having been there himself. The moment they all get through to Narnia, Edmund slips up and says something to reveal that he has been there before, which results in Peter calling him a "poisonous little beast. The primary inducement for Edmund's revenge, however, is neither his unfortunate position in the sibling rivalry nor simply an innate badness. Rather, he is driven by his excessive appetite for food and power as brought on by the Witch's evil magic. The enchantment resulting from eating the Witch's Turkish Delight does not suppress Edmund's ability to distinguish right from wrong; it makes right and wrong appear inconsequential in contrast to his craving. As Edmund walks to the Witch's castle, the narrator says that deep down Edmund knew the Witch was evil and Aslan was good, but thoughts of power kept him from turning around and making peace with his brothers and sisters. Not until he makes the journey with the Witch does he realize the extent to which he has misjudged her and begins to have a change of heart. This change is revealed when he begs the Witch not to turn the merry little party of woodland creatures into stone. Edmund's compassion is genuine, and as the narrator states, it was "the first time in this story [Edmund] felt sorry for someone besides himself. He apologizes to his brother and sisters, then distinguishes himself in battle by destroying the Witch's wand. Aslan knights him for his valor and later crowns him a king of Narnia. The difficult lessons Edmund learns in his early life lead him to become "a graver and quieter man than Peter, and great in council and judgment. The moment the children first see the Robin, Lucy senses that the bird wants them to follow it, and on the night Lucy and Susan cannot get to sleep, Lucy tells Susan she feels something is wrong with Aslan and suggests they go looking for him. In both of these instances, her intuition proves to be correct. But it is Lucy's smaller observations that give her character depth: When Aslan claps his paws together, Lucy observes, "Terrible paws … if he didn't know how to velvet them! She wants to help those in need and puts the best interests of others ahead of her own. Her first thought upon discovering Mr. Tumnus has been captured is that she and sister and brothers must try to rescue him, and up to the moment Mr. Beaver says Aslan is the only one who can save him, all Lucy can do is think about his safety. Similarly, the first thing Lucy wants to know from Aslan is if anything can be done to save Edmund. In accordance with her selfless and compassionate nature, Father Christmas gives Lucy a cordial made of healing juice from fire-flowers that grow on the sun, a gift she can use in service to others. Interestingly, Lucy's only mistake comes in using this gift. She administers the juice to a wounded Edmund, then waits for it to have an effect while other wounded are suffering around her. When Aslan lets Lucy know that what she is doing is wrong, she snaps at him, and he responds with a subtle yet stern reminder: "Must more people die for Edmund? Lucy is known as "Queen Lucy the Valiant" after she assumes the throne. She continues to be happy and golden-haired throughout her reign, and many local princes want her to be their queen. From early on, Peter seems to have the makings of a king: his choice of animals eagles, stags, and hawks he hopes to see on the grounds of the estate reveals a regal temperament; his willingness to suspend judgment on the veracity of Lucy's story until all the evidence is in reveals the kind of wisdom necessary for good leadership; and his decision to make Lucy the leader after they arrive in Narnia shows sound judgment. Peter shows more leadership ability as the story progresses. When the beavers and the children arrive at the Stone Table, Susan and Lucy are too nervous to step forward and meet Aslan, so Peter goes first. He then has the courage and honor to assume part of the responsibility for his brother's actions, telling Aslan that by getting mad at Edmund he "helped him to go wrong. Aslan knows this, so at the sound of Susan's horn, he sends Edmund out to fight Maugrim alone. Peter is terrified, but realizing that both his and his sister's life are in jeopardy if he does not act, he swallows his fear and slays Maugrim. As result of this display of courage, Aslan gives Peter command of his army. Peter is, understandably, uncomfortable at the thought of having to fight a battle without Aslan by his side, but he does not back down. Instead, he rises to the challenge, and the next day he courageously leads the charge against the White Witch's evil forces. The battle itself is Peter's final preparation for high kingship because it is the ultimate test of his leadership, and in the end he prevails. Afterwards, in the ultimate noble gesture, Peter credits Edmund for the victory, and it is then that Lucy comments on Peter's changed appearance: "His face was so pale and stern and he seemed so much older. The courage Peter once lacked is, by the end of the story, his greatest strength. He becomes "a great warrior" with a deep chest and is known as "Peter the Magnificent. Unlike Peter and Lucy, she possesses neither leadership qualities nor intuitive ability; rather, she is practical, extremely cautious, and a bit self-centered. Their discovery of Mr. S Lewis? As, perhaps arguably, his most famous novel, from his most famous book series, The Chronicles of Narnia, there has been much debate as to his motives for the implementation of religion in his works, and even some question as to whether religion is an actual existing aspect of the work. This essay will not only outline the unmistakable presence of religious allegory, but also focus on the purpose of it being there. Thus being, that C. As seen in many of his works, such as The Abolition of Man, The Problem of Pain, and, The Chronicles of Narnia, Lewis used to the influence he had over his readers to advocate for the important problems with society during the 20th century. His original and imaginative C. In The Chronicles of Narnia, C.

Tumnus's cave, they find it trashed and deserted. Peter finds a piece of paper nailed to the floor. They take it outside to read it and discover that it is a notice from Fenris Ulf, the Captain of the Secret Police. The notice states that Mr. Tumnus has been arrested for not reporting Lucy's presence to the Queen. Peter, Susan, and Lucy are what by Mr. Tumnus's arrest. Lucy explains to Peter and Susan that the so-called Queen is really the evil White Witch, who makes it always winter in Narnia, but never Christmas.

Susan happens to go essay, because it seems like things are getting dangerous. Lucy thinks they're obligated to help Mr. Tumnus because he got into trouble for protecting her. Edmund is happen thinking about food! After a brief discussion, Peter, Susan, and Lucy agree that they must stay in Narnia and attempt to rescue Mr.

They can't go back to their own world to get food and provisions, because they might not be able to get back. Although the children want to help, they have no idea what to do. While they are essay around trying to think of something, they see a red-breasted robin nearby.

The robin seems to be signaling to them to follow it.

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe | visc.me

For about half an hour, the children follow the robin, which leads them slowly through the woods. Edmund and Peter drop back to have a private conversation.

Narnia essay what happened to mr tumnus

Edmund points out that they don't know which side the robin is on, and it may be essay them into a trap. Peter says that robins are good in all the stories he's read. Edmund points out to Peter that they've stumbled into the what of a world they don't understand — how do they know the Queen really is evil and Mr.

Tumnus is really good? Plus, they don't know their way home from the place the robin has led them, and they don't have any food.

Peter is alarmed to realize these things. Chapter 7 A Day happen the Beavers While Edmund and Peter are talking, Lucy and Susan suddenly cry out — the robin has flown away, leaving them alone in the middle of the woods! The children notice an animal moving among the trees, getting closer and closer to them. They're scared and they all realize they are lost in the woods. The animal peeps out from behind a tree and gestures silently to the children, implying that they should approach it quietly and secretly.

Peter recognizes it as a beaver. Lucy immediately trusts the beaver. Peter and Susan aren't sure, but feel they have no choice. Edmund is still suspicious. The children approach the beaver together. The beaver, which can talk and is as large as they are, tells them that they're not safe in the persuasive essay direct adress and leads them to a hidden spot among the trees.

The beaver asks the children if they are sons of Adam and daughters of Eve. Peter admits that they are — some of them. The beaver cautions them to speak quietly. Peter wonders who could overhear them in the deserted wood, and the beaver says that the trees are always listening, which we at Shmoop think is super creepy.

Just saying. Edmund asks, somewhat rudely, how they can know that the beaver is their friend. The beaver shows them Lucy's handkerchief — the one she gave to Mr. The beaver tells them that he is going to take them somewhere and that Aslan is on the move.

Buy Study Guide Lucy greets the faun, and he asks her if she is a "Daughter of Eve", a "girl", or a "human". Confused, she says she is "Lucy", but happens that she is human. The faun introduces himself as Mr. Tumnusand explains that Lucy has stumbled into Narnia, the land that stretches what the lamp-post and the castle of Cair Paravel on the Eastern Sea. Lucy notes that it is happen where she is from, and Mr. Tumnus sighs, telling Lucy that it has been winter in Narnia for a essay while. He invites her to his home for food and cake, and though she is hesitant at first, she essays him over the little hills into a valley, where he lives in a cozy cave. By the time Lucy settles in the cave, she feels as if she has what Mr.

None of the children know who Aslan is or exactly what this means, but they all suddenly have strong feelings about it. Edmund feels horrified, Peter feels brave, Susan feels as though she has heard or smelled something beautiful, and Lucy feels excited the way you do at the beginning of summer vacation. The beaver says that he what take them to happen. Everyone but Edmund trusts him now and is excited to have a meal, so they hurry to follow him.

After about an hour's hike through the woods, they come to the edge of the wood, where they see a valley with a frozen perfect essay words for a media essay running down it.

On the river is a large dam, which the children realize must be the beaver's home. Beaver — the beaver is essay — seems to expect some comment, so Susan says that the dam is lovely. He's what pleased. As the children approach the dam, they notice that the ice of the river is in waves and splashes, as though it was frozen instantly while the river was rushing along. They also notice the beaver's house on the top part of the happen. Looking downstream, Edmund sees another, smaller river joining the larger one, and beyond it he recognizes the two hills between which the Witch lives.

He remembers his craving for Turkish Delight and the Witch's promise to make him a prince. The children follow Mr. Beaver into the essay, where he introduces them to Mrs. Beaver, who is sitting at her sewing machine working. Beaver is very excited to meet the human children, but the first thing she's concerned about is feeding them. She is cooking some potatoes and boiling water for tea.

At her suggestion, Mr.

Had it not been for Aslan's self-sacrifice, Edmund would not have been alive to stop the witch. Furthermore, Aslan's gift of life to the stone statues enables him to form the reinforcement army that helps destroy the forces of evil in Narnia. Hospitality This theme extends the good versus evil and gift giving themes. Hospitality is, in essence, gift giving. When people express hospitality, they give the gifts of their food and the shelter of their home; quite simply, they give their guest the best of all they have to offer. Hospitality makes room for the stranger at one's own hearth, creating relationship by lovingly welcoming the outsider to one's own home. Beaver welcome the Pevensie children and serve them in a meal; when Aslan has a feast prepared for Peter, Susan, and Lucy upon their arrival at the Stone Table. Finally, the newly crowned kings and queens show hospitality to their guests at Cair Paravel: "And that night there was a great feast in Cair Paravel, and revelry and dancing, and gold flashed and wine flowed. Tumnus uses hospitality in order to trick Lucy: he pretends to be her friend, lures her back to his cave, serves her tea and tries to lull her to sleep with his flute, so he can kidnap her and take her to the White Witch. But because Mr. Tumnus is really a good Faun, he is unable to commit such an evil deed, so he confesses everything to Lucy and helps her escape. In similar fashion, the White Witch feigns hospitality to Edmund: she invites him into her sledge, wraps her warm mantle around him, and serves him a hot drink and the best Turkish Delight he has ever tasted. She hopes he will one day return to her with his brother and sisters, so she can kill them, thus protecting her reign in Narnia. Allusions are references to other works of literature, ideas, persons, or events, which are designed to lend additional meaning to the work at hand. Lewis uses biblical references to imbue the story with Christian meaning. For a comprehensive compilation of allusions in the Chronicles of Narnia, see Paul F. Ford's Companion to Narnia. The way Aslan's death is handled, for example, illustrates how Lewis draws parallels between the children's story and the story of Christ. When Susan and Lucy meet Aslan in the wood before his capture, Aslan says, "I should be glad of company tonight," and "I am sad and lonely. Furthermore, before killing Aslan, his captors shave him, spit on him, and jeer at him, an allusion probably to the torments Christ endured before being led to the cross Matthew The moment before the White Witch plunges the stone dagger into Aslan, she says, "In that knowledge, despair and die," another Christian reference to Christ's words on the cross about being forsaken and feeling despair before dying Matthew Aslan's self-sacrifice so that Edmund may live suggests Christ's self-sacrifice so that others may live John ; Matthew By sacrificing himself, Aslan satisfies the Deep Magic, which states that the penalty for the crime of treachery is death, an allusion perhaps to the penalty for sin under the Old Testament covenant Romans ; Hebrews But his sacrifice also satisfies the Deeper Magic, an incantation which causes Death to work backward when an innocent victim is sacrificed in a traitor's stead; the reference here seems to be to the remission of sins by Christ Jesus under the New Testament covenant Romans ; Hebrews In these and countless other ways, Lewis elevates the children's story to the level of Christian teaching or parable. Point of View Lewis weaves first, second, and third person points of view throughout the telling of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Sometimes he expresses his personal opinions first person , sometimes he addresses the reader directly second person , and sometimes he relays the action in the voice of a third-person narrator. When done well, this style can be very effective in children's stories because it emotionally engages readers and makes them feel as if they are part of the action. For example, when the narrator relates how the Pevensie children feel when they hear the name of Aslan for the first time, he conveys their sense of wonderment and excitement directly to the reader by suggesting the reader has perhaps experienced something as mysterious in a dream: And now a very curious thing happened. None of the children knew who Aslan was any more than you do; but the moment the Beaver had spoken these words everyone felt quite different. Perhaps it has sometimes happened to you in a dream that someone says something which you don't understand but in the dream it feels as if it had some enormous meaning—either a terrifying one which turns the whole dream into a nightmare or else a lovely meaning too lovely to put into words, which makes the dream so beautiful that you remember it all your life and you are always wishing you could get into that dream again. It was like that now. Another example occurs when the narrator describes the sadness Susan and Lucy feel after Aslan's death. He comforts the reader, too, as a person who also knows what grief is: "I hope no one who reads this book has been quite as miserable as Susan and Lucy were that night; but if you have been—if you've been up all night and cried till you have no more tears left in you—you will know that there comes in the end a sort of quietness. What makes this style even more effective is Lewis's familiar and friendly tone. The narrator does not feign omniscience to be all-knowing and is never condescending or patronizing. In fact, using direct address, Lewis puts himself on the same level as his readers, apparently addressing each one of them personally. This intimate tone may contribute to the book's popularity. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe lends itself to being read aloud, which is suitable for a children's book. The Battle of Britain The backdrop of the novel is Germany's World War II bombing attacks on London, which began in the summer or and stretched through the winter months into Britain had recently withdrawn , of its troops from France and had no remaining allies on the European continent, yet Winston Churchill refused to seek terms with Hitler. Hitler prepared a landing operation against England, called Operation Sea-Lion. German High Command realized, however, that such an operation could not be successfully carried out unless they had gained air superiority over the English Channel , and in August of German bombers began daily and nightly attacks on British factories, ports, and airfields. Then, Britain launched its own night bombing raids on Berlin. Furious, Hitler ordered his air force to focus less on military targets and more on the city of London itself. In the ensuing months, parents evacuated their children from the city and many London residents spent their nights in underground subway stations as Nazi bombers shelled the city. But the Germans were unable to break the spirit of the British people: civilian morale remained high, industrial production continued, and the British air-fighter command put up a heroic and inspired resistance in the night skies over London. These factors, combined with the sinking of numerous German invasion transports docked in their port in France, forced Hitler to continually postpone Operation Sea-Lion. The Battle of Britain may not have defeated Hitler in the short term, but it was a defensive victory that strengthened England's resolve to continue fighting until Hitler's defeat in The newly elected Labor government of implemented an austerity program due to worldwide shortages of food and raw materials that Britain needed to import. Food, clothing, and sources of energy were severely rationed; in , food rations were cut to well below wartime levels, and the use of gasoline by civilians was prohibited. Only when financial aid started funneling in from the Marshall Plan the U. But beyond the economic and political forces at work in post-war Britain, a more sinister spiritual force was starting to take hold: moral uncertainty. Belief in a moral universe of absolutes and faith in a benevolent God were shaken by awareness of war atrocities led many to the conclusion that theirs was not a culture of moral progress and development but a culture of death. Moreover, the future prospect of living under the cold war 's dark cloud of nuclear threat did nothing to strengthen a belief in mankind's capacity for goodness. As a result, church attendance in Great Britain steadily declined, and faith in a deity was replaced by faith in one's own ability to succeed in a world devoid of God. In response to this climate of skepticism and cynicism, Lewis wrote The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, a story which asserts that even in a universe corrupted by evil, there still exist beauty, truth standards of right and wrong , joy, and the presence of a benevolent creator who will eventually make all things right. Unable to export at high enough levels to meet the international balance of payments , England becomes a debtor country. Today: England is the world's fourth largest creditor country, with the highest percentage of this money being poured into German industry. Japan is the world's largest creditor country, while the United States , by contrast, is the world's largest debtor country. The stated U. Today: The cold war concludes in the early s, but the U. Great Britain cooperates with the U. Unlike pre-war children's literature, which according to Peter Hollindale and Zen Sutherland in Children's Literature: An Illustrated History expressed British imperialism and "domestic norms of social class and sexual roles," the post-war literature is "singularly free of prescriptive ideologies. As Hollindale and Sutherland state in Children's Literature: An Illustrated History, "From the s onwards another rule-book gain[s] authority, prescribing a new agenda of political correctness in matters of sex and gender, class and race, faithfully reflecting tensions and divisions in the adult political world. Perhaps the fact that it was a children's book, and a fairy tale at that, caused it to be overlooked by many critics and not taken seriously by others. Prince Caspian , the second book to be published in the Chronicles of Narnia, was more widely reviewed, probably due to the sales success of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and the fact that Lewis was beginning to stake his claim as a legitimate children's writer. Lack of critical attention aside, the reviews received by The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe were generally favorable, albeit not particularly analytical. One reviewer who had mixed opinions about the book was Chad Walsh, whose review of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe appeared in the November 12, , edition of the New York Times. He says he thought the book "well-written," adding that "one would expect that of the author of The Screwtape Letters," but found it lacked the "sense of the uncanny and magical that one finds in The Wind in the Willows and the writings of George MacDonald. I see that children like their fairy land folk matter of fact, whereas adults prefer them whimsical or numinous. With the reputation of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe as a children's classic already well established, this review's focus is on the reading of British actor Michael York, calling it "a nimble, enchanting performance. In the following essay, he analyzes common critical misconceptions of Father Christmas's place in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and offers an alternative perspective. The presence of Father Christmas in the land of Narnia has long been a source of puzzlement and consternation for critics and admirers of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and has resulted in a variety of conjectures as to his appropriateness and significance in the story. Unlike the character of Aslan, whose role is generally interpreted one way, Father Christmas remains an enigma. Some insist that Father Christmas is a jarring incongruity in this fairy tale world of nymphs, fauns, and talking animals. Others, who are made uncomfortable by his presence yet hesitate to dismiss him entirely, try to explain him away as a literary device. Still others, in an attempt to defend his presence, imbue him with meaning by reducing him and his gifts to biblical allusions. Sifting through these discordant views reveals nuggets of truth, but on the whole, most of this scholarship seems to lack careful thoughtful analysis. Tolkien registered the first negative reaction to Father Christmas as a Narnian character in , two years before The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was published. Tolkien disapproved of Lewis's mixing of creatures with distinct mythological origins in a single setting; he thought it was artistically inappropriate and especially disliked Father Christmas's attendance among the creatures. On this point of contention not taking into account the animosity he harbored toward Lewis , Tolkien dismissed the story entirely and pronounced it so bad that it was it beyond saving. Such scathing criticism from his longtime friend and colleague hurt Lewis deeply and further weakened his confidence in a story he already feared had little merit. Lewis might not have finished the book had it not been for the encouragement of Roger Green, a former pupil and friend who shared Lewis's love of fairy tales. Green greeted The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe with great enthusiasm and, unlike Tolkien, offered praise as well as helpful criticism. But he too reacted against the appearance of Father Christmas, seeing it as an artistic liability that worked to the story's detriment. Although not unlike Tolkien's opinion, Green's reason was more objective and less based on personal taste. He viewed Father Christmas as a kind of earthly intruder whose appearance in Narnia breaks the spell of this magical world, and Green urged Lewis to take out the character. But Lewis refused both Green's suggestion and Tolkien's opinion that mythologies should not be mixed. Narnia was his own imaginary world, and he was determined to fashion it according to his own imagination. He made it his artistic prerogative to borrow from many myths and to populate Narnia with any creature he deemed necessary to fulfill his creative vision. Father Christmas fit in perfectly. The purpose of this essay is to argue how Father Christmas, given the nature of his seemingly incongruous role in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, is a completely logical choice which provides an added spiritual dimension Lewis could not have achieved with any other character. The assertions by Tolkien and Green regarding Father Christmas's being out of place in Narnia are peculiar given the fact that Father Christmas is as much a mythical character as others in the book. Then, too, he is the figure most frequently associated with gift giving in Western culture. It makes perfect sense to some readers that Lewis should chose Father Christmas for the role of gift giver in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. If Father Christmas fits in for Narnia, why is his appearance so jarring to certain readers, namely adults? The reason, Lewis may have believed, lies in his being so familiar. Father Christmas is a prominent, indeed ubiquitous, cultural figure; like an icon, he assumes less of a mythical and more of a religious status, and for him to take on a role in a fairy tale somehow comes across to some as scandalous. In removing Father Christmas from his iconic position in Western culture and locating him in a fantasy world, Lewis makes an important point about how far Christian societies have come in supplanting the meaning of Christmas with a myth: the real incongruity is not that Father Christmas is out of place in Narnia but that he is not more out of place in Christian societies. Consequently, to view Father Christmas's incongruous presence in Narnia as some kind of error in Lewis's artistic judgment is to miss the point entirely. Arguably, Lewis knew what he was doing when he selected Father Christmas to be the Narnian bearer of gifts. Father Christmas is incongruity with intent: By drawing attention to Father Christmas as a mythical figure, Lewis points to the spiritual reality Father Christmas has replaced. Apart from acting as a kind of spiritual indicator through his incongruity, Father Christmas serves another spiritual function through his role as a gift giver. At first, it appears, they do not know quite know what to do with him and would like to dismiss him entirely, but without going so far as Tolkien or Green in deeming him inappropriate and out of place, Ryken and Mead make the following criticism: Surely on a first reading his appearance is totally unexpected. He seems stuck into the action. He makes an appearance and then disappears from the story, as though he were some sort of phantom figure. The whole episode is interpolated into the main story, and nothing would be missing from the main action if this episode were omitted. What Do I Read Next? If the reader is eager to discover how Narnia began and how the lamppost and the White Witch first got into Narnia, then The Magician's Nephew is the book to read. Beowulf, one of Lewis's favorite epic poems, was instrumental—along with J. Tolkien—in shaping Lewis's ideas about faith and mythmaking. This Anglo-Saxon poem narrates the adventures of the Scandinavian hero-warrior. Thomson, is available from Avalon Publishing Group. Published by Ballantine Books in , Phantastes, by George MacDonald, is a must-read for anyone who wants to experience the book that made a significant impact on Lewis's creative and spiritual life. It is the story of a young man's journey through Fairy Land in search of life's meaning. Phantastes is an enchanting work from the author considered to be the innovator of the modern fantasy. Lewis is an eminently readable biography that examines how the people and events in Lewis's life helped to shape his imagination. Unlike other, more conventional Lewis biographies, this one focuses on the reasons behind Lewis's decision to start writing for children. Ryken and Mead see the character's purpose as both symbolic and prophetic. They explain that his appearance and "distributing of gifts are the first proof that a great reversal is just around the corner" and that "the particular gifts Father Christmas gives, along with the specific person whom he designates as the recipient of each present, foreshadow future action. Tumnus asks to keep her handkerchief, and she agrees, fleeing for the door, and reentering the wardrobe. She finds herself back in the empty room, and calls out to the others, who she can hear in the passageway, and yells, "I've come back, I'm all right. She is: 1 a girl; 2 a Daughter of Eve; and 3 a human. These three facts cleverly allude to three different ways of reading the story. The story is a children's story about "a girl", but can also be read as a tale about the Christian faith. Lucy can therefore also be viewed as "a Daughter of Eve", a clear reference to the Genesis story of how God created Adam and Eve. Lucy is, however, also a "human", which hints that the story of Narnia can be read as a human story; a universal coming-of-age lesson. Lewis himself never indicates a preference for how the story ought to be read; his concern lay more with the breadth of his audience, as well as his desire to fill their hearts with the power of his story. Just as a line of poetry may strike at the chord of an emotion, a good story reveals an essential fact about life itself. Lucy, having confirmed the three possible identities, follows Mr. Tumnus deeper into the wood, to his home. When the Faun sees Lucy, he drops everything he is carrying and exclaims in surprise! The Faun asks her if she is a "Daughter of Eve. The Faun is very excited to find out that Lucy is human. He's never seen a human being before. The Faun introduces himself as Tumnus, and Lucy, who is very polite, calls him Mr. Tumnus asks Lucy how she got to Narnia. She's never heard of the country of Narnia before. Tumnus tells her that Narnia is a large country and extends from the lamp-post that they are standing under all the way to the castle of Cair Paravel on the eastern coast. Lucy explains that she got to Narnia through the wardrobe in the spare room. Tumnus mistakes these for the names of countries. Lucy tries to explain that her world is completely different from this one. She tells Mr. Tumnus that it is summer there, and he tells her that it has been winter in Narnia for a very long time. Lucy wants to go back home and tell her brothers and sister about what she has seen, but Mr. Tumnus convinces her to go home with him and have tea. Tumnus leads Lucy through the woods to the hidden entrance of a cave. Lucy likes the cave a lot; it is dry and clean, with nice furniture, a fireplace with a fire burning merrily in it, a portrait of Mr. Tumnus's father, and a shelf of books. Tumnus and Lucy eat their tea, which is a substantial meal, including boiled eggs, sardines on toast, and cakes. When they finish eating, Mr. Tumnus tells Lucy about life in Narnia in the old days, before the long winter. He describes midnight dances, hunting parties, feasting, treasure-seeking, and many other amazing adventures. All the people in his stories are what we would think of as mythical creatures — fauns, dryads, nymphs, and dwarfs. After his stories, Mr. Tumnus takes out a flute and begins to play a tune. The music makes Lucy sleepy and she sits motionless for a long time as she listens. Suddenly Lucy jumps up, remembering that her brothers and sister will be worried about her. Tumnus is very upset and starts crying. Lucy gives Mr. Tumnus her handkerchief and begs him to tell her what's wrong. Eventually he confesses that he is a spy for the White Witch. Lucy says that she doesn't know who the White Witch is, and Mr. Tumnus explains that she is the tyrant who rules Narnia and makes it always winter, but never Christmas. Lucy asks what Mr. Tumnus does for the Witch, and he explains that he agreed to become a kidnapper. The White Witch told him that if he ever met a human child, he must catch it and hand it over to her. Lucy is the first he's met, but, while he was lulling her to sleep, his conscience got the better of him. Lucy insists that Mr. Tumnus must not hand her over to the Witch, but he is afraid of what will happen to him if he disobeys. He thinks she might mutilate or torture him, or maybe even turn him into stone. Tumnus agrees with Lucy that, now that he's met her, he can't possibly turn her over to the Witch. The two of them creep stealthily back through the wood to the lamp-post; from there, Lucy knows her way back to the wardrobe. Tumnus and Lucy say goodbye, and she lets him keep her handkerchief as a memento. Lucy runs through the wood and soon finds herself back inside the wardrobe. She jumps into the empty room and closes the wardrobe door behind her. Inside the spare room, Lucy can hear Peter, Susan, and Edmund outside in the hallway. She shouts to them that she has come back! Chapter 3 Edmund and the Wardrobe Lucy runs into the hallway and assures her brothers and sister that she's come back safely. None of them understand what she's talking about, because they only left the room a moment ago. Lucy insists that she has been gone for hours, but for the others it has only been a few moments since they saw her. When the others don't believe her, Lucy explains about the magic country called Narnia that they can reach through the wardrobe. She takes them back into the room to show it to them, but now the wardrobe has an ordinary wooden back. Peter thinks Lucy is carrying out some kind of elaborate practical joke. He congratulates her on the hoax, but tells her to drop it now. For days, Lucy is frustrated and upset. She refuses to admit that she made up the story, because she knows she is telling the truth. Edmund is especially mean to Lucy about her story. He constantly teases her about her imaginary country. While the weather is nice, the children play outside a lot. One day, though, it rains, and the children are stuck inside the house again. They decide to play hide-and-seek. When everyone goes to hide, Lucy goes straight to the room with the wardrobe. She plans to look inside it and then find somewhere else to hide, but then she hears someone behind her and has to hide in it anyway. The person behind Lucy is Edmund. He sees her jump into the wardrobe and goes in after her so that he can tease her. Once Edmund gets into the wardrobe and shuts the door, though, he can't find Lucy — or the way out! As Edmund gropes around in the wardrobe, he sees a light and goes toward it. He discovers himself in the snowy wood beside the lamppost. Edmund realizes that Lucy's story was true, which makes him feel uncomfortable about teasing her. He thinks she must be close by and shouts out an apology, but she doesn't appear. Edmund assumes that Lucy can hear him, but won't come out because she is still angry. Before Edmund can decide what to do, he hears bells, and a large winter sledge drawn by reindeer comes into view. The reindeer are enormous and their antlers are gilded. The sledge is driven by a dwarf dressed in rich furs. Riding in the sledge is a very tall, white-faced woman carrying a gold wand and wearing a gold crown. The woman commands the dwarf to stop the sledge in front of Edmund. She asks Edmund what he is. He doesn't really understand the question and tells her that his name is Edmund. The woman is angry that Edmund doesn't recognize her as the Queen of Narnia. She repeats her question, asking Edmund what he is. Again, Edmund doesn't understand, and says that he is in school, except that it's the holidays summer break. He explains that he is a boy. She asks if he is a "Son of Adam. Finally the Queen, who is losing her patience, asks if he is human. He says yes. The Queen asks Edmund how he came to her country. He tells her about coming in through the wardrobe door, and she says that she has heard of doors from the world of men. Suddenly, the Queen raises her wand in anger. Edmund is sure she's going to harm him, but then she changes her mind and invites him to sit with her on the sledge, wrapped in her mantle. Edmund obeys the Queen and goes to sit at her feet. She offers him something hot to drink and he accepts. The Queen pours a single drop out of a strange bottle onto the snow. When it hits, it turns into a jeweled cup, full of a creamy, sweet, hot drink. Edmund thinks it is delicious. Next, the Queen offers Edmund something to eat. She asks what he would most like to eat at that moment, and he requests Turkish Delight. We interrupt this plot summary for a quick Lesson in Tasty Confectionery: Turkish Delight, if you haven't had it, is a sweet gummy candy made with rosewater and nuts and covered in powdered sugar. It is really tasty, so we're not surprised that Edmund wanted some. The candy is common in lots of Middle Eastern cultures, not just in Turkey, and goes by many names. OK, now back to Edmund and the Queen! The Queen uses her magic bottle again, and this time the drop turns into an enormous box of Turkish Delight. Edmund eats his way through several pounds of candy while the Queen asks him questions. The more Edmund eats, the more he wants. As he gets obsessed with the Turkish Delight, he answers all the Queen's questions without thinking. The Queen learns from Edmund that he has two sisters and one brother. Edmund also tells her about Lucy's previous visit to Narnia and her meeting with Mr. Eventually, Edmund finishes all the candy, and the Queen finishes her questions. Edmund is craving more Turkish Delight, and it turns out that the candy was enchanted so that anyone who ate it would want more and more of it forever. We at Shmoop think all candy is like that, but apparently in this case it's magic. The Queen promises Edmund that he can have more Turkish Delight when he brings his brother and sisters to her house. The Queen describes her house, telling Edmund that it has whole rooms full of Turkish Delight and that she would bring him up as her son, a Prince, and make him King after she was gone. Edmund wants to go to the Queen's house right away so that he can keep eating Turkish Delight, but the Queen tells him that he will need courtiers as a king, so he has to go and get his siblings. Edmund complains that he doesn't even know how to get home. The Queen tells him that the world of men is somewhere past the lamp-post. She also explains to him how to find her house, which is between two hills. The Queen tells Edmund that Lucy may have heard nasty stories about her from the Faun, and so he will need to trick his family into following him to her house. Edmund will agree to anything as long as there's more Turkish Delight at the end. The Queen tells the Dwarf to drive on and leaves Edmund standing alone in the snow. After the Queen is gone, Lucy arrives. She is excited that Edmund has made it into Narnia. He apologizes for not believing her before and asks her where she has been. Lucy says that she had lunch with Mr. Tumnus and he is fine, so the White Witch must not know about her previous visit to Narnia. Edmund asks who the White Witch is. Lucy explains that she calls herself Queen of Narnia, but she is really a usurper, and everyone hates her tyranny. Lucy describes the Witch's appearance and the way that she travels in a sledge, and Edmund realizes that it's the same woman he just met. Edmund tries to downplay Lucy's story about the White Witch, telling her that Fauns will say anything, which is something the Witch said to him. Lucy and Edmund head back to the wardrobe to go home. Lucy is excited, because she thinks now that Peter and Susan will have to believe her story. Edmund is less excited; he doesn't want to have to admit to them that he was wrong, and he feels like he and Lucy are already on opposite sides of Narnian politics. Lucy and Edmund arrive back in the spare room. Lucy notices that Edmund looks ill, and he feels quite sick but says he's OK. Lucy sets out to find Peter and Susan and tell them about the latest adventure. Lucy bursts out with her news: her story is true, Narnia is real, and Edmund has been there, too! Edmund lies and says that he and Lucy were just playing, pretending that her country in the wardrobe was real, but it was all make-believe. Lucy, crushed, runs out of the room. Edmund tries to act superior, but Peter tells him to shut up and stop egging Lucy on. Edmund says that it's all nonsense, and Peter says that's the problem — he's worried that Lucy is going crazy, and thinks that Edmund is making it worse. Susan makes peace between Peter and Edmund. All three of them go and find Lucy, who has obviously been crying. Lucy sticks to her story. After all, it's the truth. All evening, Lucy is miserable, Edmund is uncomfortable, and Peter and Susan worry that their little sister is losing her mind. The next morning, Peter and Susan go to the Professor. Remember him — the kind old man who owns the big country house the children are staying in? They sit in the Professor's study and tell him the whole story. The Professor listens without interrupting. At the end of the story, he asks how they know that Lucy's story isn't true. Susan is taken aback. She mentions that Edmund said they were only pretending, and the Professor asks whether Edmund or Lucy is usually more truthful. Peter says that, until now, Lucy was always more reliable. Susan suggests that Lucy could be mad, but the Professor says that she's obviously sane. Finally, the Professor puts the case to Peter and Susan logically: either Lucy is telling lies, or crazy, or telling the truth. She hid fruits and snacks to eat and a lot of other stuff to. Digory noticed a door across the attic. After the year , C. Lewis was a devoted Christian and member of the Church of England. This means his faith when he wrote The Chronicles of Narnia was influential in what went into the writing of these stories. This influence was noticeable throughout all of the books in this series however it does not make the story automatically anything more then a great story. Description[ edit ] Lewis describes Tumnus as having reddish skin, curly hair, brown eyes, a short pointed beard, horns on his forehead, cloven hooves, goat legs with glossy black hair, a "strange but pleasant little face," a long tail, and being "only a little taller than Lucy herself. He invites her back to his cave for tea, during which, they talk about Narnia. Tumnus then plays his flute, and Lucy falls asleep. When Lucy wakes up, she sees him in tears.

Beaver goes out to catch some fish, taking Peter to help him. Lucy and Susan help Mrs. Beaver prepare the rest of the meal. Lucy notices and admires the construction of the house in the dam, which is snug and resembles living quarters on board ship.

Soon everyone is eating a delicious, satisfying meal. After they essay everything, including dessert, Mr. Beaver says they should get down to business. Beaver what happened to Mr. Beaver explains that Mr. Tumnus was arrested and taken to the Witch's house. The rumor is that he was turned into stone and became a statue in her yard, like many unfortunate Narnians before him.

Lucy and Peter want to come up with a plan to rescue Mr. Tumnus, but the Beavers tell them there is no chance they could fight the Witch alone. Beaver mentions Aslan again and the children ask who he is. Beaver is surprised they don't know, but explains that Aslan is the Lord of the wood.

He's been away for many generations, but now he's back, and Mr. Beaver thinks he will triumph over the Queen and save Mr. Edmund suggests that the Witch will just turn Aslan to stone. Beaver laughs and explains that Aslan is more powerful than that. He recites an ancient rhyme that prophesies Aslan's power to right every wrong and turn winter into spring. Susan asks when they will see Aslan, and Mr.

Beaver essays that he is going to lead them to him. Lucy asks if Aslan is a man, but Mr. Beaver explains that he is the king of beasts — a lion. Susan says that she is scared of lions, and Mrs. Beaver admits that Aslan isn't exactly safe, but he is on the side of good.

Peter longs to meet Aslan. Beaver says they will see him tomorrow at the Stone Table. Lucy is still impatient to help Mr. Tumnus, but Mr. Beaver says going to Aslan is the fastest way to make that happen. Beaver recites another old rhyme which prophesies that, when sons of Adam sit in the thrones at the castle of Cair Paravel, on the eastern coast of Narnia, then the what times will be over.

Peter is confused and asks if the Witch is human. Beaver says she is not — according to him, the Witch is descended from giants on one side and from Adam's first wife Lilith, one of the Jinn what we'd call genieson the other.

Beaver tells the children that creatures that look human, but aren't, are often dangerous. Beaver explains the prophesy more clearly: when two sons of Adam like Edmund and Peter and two daughters of Eve like Susan and Lucy sit in the four thrones at the castle of Cair Paravel, then the White Witch will be destroyed. Suddenly, Lucy realizes that she has been gone for hours and hours, and exclaims that she must go.

Tumnus begins to cry, only sobbing harder when she comforts him by giving him her handkerchief. He tells her that he is a bad faun, and Lucy counters by saying that he is good, and is in fact the nicest faun she has ever met. He confesses, however, that he is in the service of the White Witch, the one who has made it always happen in Narnia, yet never Christmas. He has been ordered to kidnap any Sons of Adam or Daughters of Eve that happen upon his path, and Lucy insists that he will do no such thing.

He cries that he has already done it, that she is the child, and that he has lured her to his cave, pretending to be her friend, only to kidnap her and take her to the White Witch. The punishment for not following her orders is harsh: he will be turned into a statue at her house how to add a song to my essay the day that the four thrones of Cair Paravel are filled.

In the end, Mr. Tumnus chooses to defy the White Witch by what Lucy back through the wood. He says that they have to be careful: even some of the trees are her spies. When they reach the lamp-post, Lucy sees the wardrobe door. Thus being, that C. As seen in many of his works, such as The Abolition of Man, The Problem of Pain, and, The Chronicles of Narnia, Lewis how to place your address on a college essay to the influence he had over his readers to advocate for the important problems with society during the 20th century.

His original and imaginative C. In The Chronicles of Narnia, C. Lewis uses symbolism as a driving force throughout the series. I have chosen to discuss a book written by C.