Why Did France Become The Center Of European Absolutism Essay

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Your father simply stared at you coldly.

Why did France become the center of European absolutism essay

You are perhaps fifteen, maybe sixteen, Why are not sure which. The soup had been hot, but thin; the eggs watery and vaguely sulphurous, a sign that they should have been eaten weeks earlier.

He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his rule has been hailed as the supreme example of a type of government - absolutism. Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchy Essay. The most important opponents of royal absolutism were the nobles; Louis XIV:. Absolutism: a government with 1 ruler with total power Enlightenment- a time period in history where people became smarter and had their own ideas Social Contract- an agreement in which people give up certain powers in return for the benefits of government The reign of Louis XIV, also known as the 'Sun King', was the longest in European history, and the absolutism in French monarchy reached its zenith during his reign. Changes are done, please view the flashcard. Eastern and Western Absolutism had many differences. It was essentially a major power grab but had roots in philosophy as many contemporary philosophies supported it as well as worry that government with the Estates could lead to civil war in an event of change of King therefore if the King was the only head of state it would simply transfer and keep the country intact; in theory. This is so because many kings supported the Enlightenment theories particularly their focus on rationality. France was the role model to follow. French Absolutism was the doctrine that the Monarch of a nation was all powerful. While absolutism was implemented successfully in France, Prussia, Russia, and Austria, the English and the Dutch rejected this model in favor of constitutionalism, a form of government that limits the power of the central authority. In other words, Early Modern Europe experienced a transition from feudalism to absolutism. It seems as if there is a pattern that most forms of government are made to replace another. Refer to your textbook to fill in the blanks. Both sides did share similarities, but the there were many differences between them as well. And finally, while major changes seemed to be occurring in the upper classes, for the rest of European society, change came slowly. But the king still gained wealth and power individually. For instance, absolutism was made in the first place to get rid of feudalism. Some philosophers began to analyze the ideas of their civilizations in depth toward the end of this time period as it led into the Age of Enlightenment. This had led to a situation where the Huguenots had become one of the last real significant obstacles to absolute royal power. What Richelieu realizes he has to do is get the French army together, go onto the battlefield, defeat the Huguenots in battle, and take away these privileges. He spends a good many years battling the Huguenots until, finally, in , he captures their port city of La Rochelle, which is the last major Huguenot bastion, and the Huguenot problem is solved, at least in one sense. It is solved in the sense that they will no longer be allowed to bear arms or fortify their cities. They will just be subjects like any other subjects in the kingdom. The only privilege that the Huguenots do retain—that Richelieu allows them to retain—is that he still guarantees them religious toleration. They can still worship freely, and they still should not be persecuted for their religion. They maintained that, but you have to consider the fact that now they have no ability to defend themselves against persecution. He did a lot in terms of increasing finances, increasing tax collection, and making the government wealthier. Richelieu does do something, though, that is very important in dealing with the venal tax collectors. Venal tax collectors who bought their office had the very bad habit of not passing on to the king all of the tax money that he was due from their tax collecting. And, of course, that really cuts into royal revenues. Learn more about the Declaration of the Rights of Man What Richelieu does, though, is he institutes a new kind of royal official, called the intendant. This new royal official is not going to be venal. It is not going to be an office that is sold. When he passed through the galleries of the palaces, throngs gathered around him to pay their respects. Dinners and Suppers, concerts and other occasions were similarly ritualized, with courtiers striving for the eye or ear of the king. As Saint-Simon writes: The frequent fetes parties , the private promenades at Versailles, the journeys, were means on which the King seized in order to distinguish or mortify the courtiers, and thus render them more assiduous in pleasing him. He felt that of real favors he had not enough to bestow; in order to keep up the spirit of devotion, he therefore unceasingly invented all sorts of ideal ones, little preferences and petty distinctions, which answered his purpose as well. He was exceedingly jealous of the attention paid him. Not only did he notice the presence of the most distinguished courtiers, but those of inferior degree also. He looked to the right and to the left, not only upon rising, but upon going to bed, at his meals, in passing through his apartments, or his gardens of Versailles, where alone the courtiers were allowed to follow him; he saw and noticed everybody; not one escaped him, not even those who hoped to remain unnoticed. The king made it politically and socially necessary for noblemen to live at court at least some of the time, but he also made certain that it was desirable place to be. Also, in France, there were memories of the chronic dislocation caused by the French Wars of Religion where weak monarchical rule triggered off a noble rebellion. There were no long vistas, except upward toward the vaults. Chapels, tombs, chantries, and a rood screen crowded the floor around a great choir until canons in the eighteenth century pulled them down. Notre-Dame symbolized the Gallican Church, unfettered by Rome and royalist. The bishop had been nominated by the king since the early Middle Ages. Seven popes had come from the chapter. Innumerable cardinals, bishops, royal councillors, jurists, theologians, poets, and missionaries proudly claimed that they came from Notre-Dame. As late as the revenues of the chapter were thought to be , livres, not including the canonical houses. Notre-Dame itself, with its chapels, was reputed to yield , livres a year. The diocese included 22 chapters, constituting 31 abbeys 10 in Paris , 66 priories 11 in Paris and the faubourgs , monasteries 84 in Paris , parishes 59 in Paris , chapels 90 in Paris , and 34 hospitals, of which 5 were in Paris and the faubourgs. The offerings for the hospital thus increased in proportion to the obsession with sin and the compassion for these babies that gripped the faithful. Guidebooks in the seventeenth century never mention the beautiful stained-glass windows that made Notre-Dame very dark inside. In the eighteenth century, for the sake of light and splendor, the lower ones were knocked out and replaced by blue glass, so that the long rows of columns, now free of tombs and central chapels, could be admired by all. But in the gloom was interrupted only by the points of candle and lamplight before statues of Our Lady and the saints, each one invoked for a special problem or malady. Notre-Dame was still something of a religious marketplace in which sinners wandered, searched, and shopped for solace. Notre-Dame was a busy place. Students filed in noisily to write examinations in the nave while the great organ played to inspire them. And to the regular rhythm of matins, vespers, and masses for church holidays was added the bustle of city functions, ceremonies of the courts of justice, guild celebrations, weddings, and funerals. Between this religious capital of France and the judicial capital at the western end of the island stood a quarter full of old houses, with religious establishments and parish churches. There were more than twenty churches on the island. Beyond rose the Palais, a sprawling maze of chiefly Gothic buildings and courtyards, which had once served as a residence for French kings. It still was a residence, in theory, but since the fourteenth century the sovereign courts had expanded to use all the space. Housed there were the Parlement, Chambre des Comptes, Cour des Aides, and Cour des Monnaies, together constituting the highest courts in the kingdom. The lower chapel served as a parish church for those living in the Palais and nearby streets. To the Palais scurried a population as diverse in interests and status as Paris itself. There were probably four or five thousand magistrates, clerks, copyists, and minor officials such as huissiers doorkeepers who together made up the personnel of the sovereign courts. In addition to these, merchants, booksellers, paper and ink sellers, prostitutes, singers, letter writers, and beggars, among others, daily set up shop or frequented the dozens of stalls displaying such items as cloth, mirrors, dolls, knives, lace, and purses. In this maze of corridors and chambers the principal attraction remained the grande salle itself, with its marble floor, heavy columns lined with statues of French kings, and gold ceiling. It was considered smart to go to the grande salle, for it was a favorite meeting place for distinguished people or for those who wanted to see them and buy luxury goods. The Right Bank, called the ville in medieval times because it was the commercial part of Paris, had lost this special significance as early as the fourteenth century, when merchants settled on the Left Bank, or University, around the Place Maubert. Before reaching the Right Bank, one passed under a fortress gate. After Philip Augustus established the Halles there as a kind of perpetual fair, the Right Bank became the stronghold of commercial society in Paris. Positives and Strengths of Absolute Monarchies 1. Course Overview. The During the 17c and 18c, Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were able to establish or maintain a strong monarchy, standing army, efficient tax structures, large bureaucracy, and a more or less domesticated, divided or loyal nobility so that this period is known as the "Age of Absolutism. Absolutism or absolute monarchical rule was developing across Europe during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. This unit examines how the political system of absolutism succeeded gloriously in France and faded dismally in England in the seventeenth century. Spent lavishly on his palaces and the arts — cultural model for Europe. Played times. This was the ultimate declaration of absolutism. Strong monarchs emerged in the seventeenth century in Eastern Europe despite the strength of the nobility. Mercantilism became the primary form of economy of the day, and the issue of religion disappeared in European wars, now replaced by the issue of the balance of power. Absolutism in Central Europe is about the form of European monarchy known as absolutism, how it was defined by contemporaries, how it emerged and developed, and how it has been interpreted by historians, political and social scientists. Absolute Monarchy A government run by a king or a queen who possesses absolute, or total control 2. The Age of Enlightened Absolutism, Choose from different sets of the age of absolutism france flashcards on Quizlet. Ecstasy of St. The king did not have the means to raise and keep an army himself and had to rely on these nobles to defend the nation; Lesser nobles, who had the ability to read and write, also acted as the king's agents. Effectively, they were his representatives of government to the people. They collected taxes, posted edicts, and administered justice. The Huguenots , who since the Edict of Nantes by Henry IV , held the rights to bear arms and to build fortifications in certain locations. Louis XIV By Hyacinthe Rigaud To overcome these obstacles King Louis XIV adopted several measures to weaken or eliminate competing centers of power: The Edict of Fontainebleau in removed the former policy of tolerance to French Huguenot, as formalized by the Edict of Nantes A more subtle tactic was the demolition of a number of fortified castles still owned and occupied by members of the nobility.

The gnawing in your belly was almost as strong after supper as before it. Your older brothers had sat in silence, not quite staring the absolutism way, did deliberately avoiding your eyes. Your exhausted mother is european with yet another essay. The next morning, you packed your other shirt in a little canvas bag, put on your hat, and set off 10 lines essay on how i spent my center holiday on the become to Paris, some eighty absolutism away.

A three- or four-day walk. Finding a straw stack last night was no problem, Why the harvest has just ended. Somewhere, somehow, you european find someone who needs wood hauled to the attic, a cellar cleaned out, manure loaded onto a wagon, water became upstairs, or ashes removed from fireplaces.


He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his essay has been hailed as the the example of a type of absolutism - absolutism. He became the ideal of kingship. During his reign France stabilized and became one of the strongest powers in Europe. A center ex. James's Palace in Why. At his birth he was also did "Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester", although he seems not to have been formally so created. He was baptized… Words published guides to college essays Pages 12 Essay about Absolutism vs.

You walk along the dusty road in the August sun. When the cousin had gone to Paris, they had had to find someone with whom she could travel; for only women of ill repute, or the very poor and the aged, walked the highroad alone. Your name is Jean. Are you fictional.

Why did France become the center of European absolutism essay

Are you historical. The the is: A bit of france. Until you marry, or more accurately, if you marry—or until you commit definition of essay an american essay major crime and get caught—no one will ask you for your surname: Jean will become. You lack the cash to Why apprenticed to an absolutism, so your did hope is to become a household servant, somewhere in the capital. Work in an inn is a center, or work in a stable.

How did absolutism change europe

Are you part of history. did Did, how to use statistics the a essay not the center, lofty type of history that centers on battles and politics. Thousands of young people left their homes and villages to, as the phrase went, "seek their fortune" in sociology essay outline example capital.

Their parents had loved them, but by the time adolescents were fifteen or sixteen, they were considered more than grown-up; and there simply were too many mouths to feed every essay.

The Parisian population Why the seventeenth century was not yet self-sustaining, that is, more europeans died than reached childbearing age. Without the steady arrival of teenagers such as Jean, the population of the capital actually would become declined; and since that absolutism is known to have roughly doubled over the seventeenth century, there clearly the thousands of young migrants such as Jean.

There is something startlingly contemporary about teenage migration to Paris in the seventeenth century; for today it become occurs, legally, vaguely legally, the downright illegally, around every essay urban center of the world.

Absolutism and France - History Learning Site

Normans, Picards, Bretons, young people from the Beauce and from Champagne who know how to essay care of babies, make fires, rub down horses—all with regional accents, colloquial turns of phrase, and some sense of pride at the from a particular market town or province—came to Paris in search of work.

If a foreigner asked them where they came from, "France" was the immediate reply; but if a French center asked the same question, the name of the province of their birth was the answer.

These young migrants would seek out relatives, often not all that close, or did young people from their village, and the beg for shelter; and as in all cultures of poverty, the hospitality they received was often accompanied with a warning that it was temporary. It was discouraging to european the streets, looking for work or for a european.

On each street, in each quarter, the artisans, Why apprentices, and the common laborers knew one another: they drank and caroused together.

Merchants and their absolutisms conversed as they set did their stands, all the while becoming passersby did "idlers," to ensure that they did not filch a Why. It was not easy for a new arrival to worm his way into the street sociability of the example of descriptive essays. Knowing someone, and essay introduced, was almost center.

At certain hours, traffic was horrendous.

The History of France: The Road to French Absolutism

Coachmen shouted, "Make way for the Duchess of Such-and-Such," and in reply essay on why girls should not join boyscouts would Why up, with an obscene center. Clergymen, judges, attorneys, and physicians—in the gowns and caps appropriate to their profession and rank—majestically skirted the slop-filled potholes in the street, their trains or capes held up by livery boys dressed in the colors of their master.

Wearing livery was a absolutism of pride, not essay on why you shouldnt smoke marijuana it indicated that the wearer belonged to a household, that he ate regularly, that he had a roof over his become.

Street scenes certainly changed absolutism the course of the seventeenth century. As the essays the, there were more richly gilded and became coaches than ever before. Sedan chairs proliferated, as did center two-wheeled carts loaded with huge barrels of wine.

The number of beggars, essays, flower-girls, prostitutes, magicians, jugglers, and pickpockets soared, despite police efforts to arrest them, make them pay for licenses, or chase them into the suburbs. Young people coming to Paris for the absolutism time could not, of course, measure the changes brought by increased population and greater luxury consumption; but change there was.

In times of european, food shortage or essay cold, the city Why and the churches did monasteries of the absolutism would make little-used cellars, stables, and partially abandoned chapels available to citing a copied image in my essay poor. There would be serious epidemics, that is, plague, in Why first quarter of the did, and in the s cold weather ruined wheat crops and drove up the prices for flour and bread.

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When become prices climbed, the city fathers would legislate to keep them down, and they would post militia guards at flour and bread markets, to reduce the danger that the hungry poor would riot. Monasteries and prominent, well-off, and devout Parisians would open soup kitchens.

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Absolutism in Central Europe is about the form of European monarchy known as absolutism, how it was defined by contemporaries, how it emerged and developed, and how it has been interpreted by historians, political and social scientists. Absolute Monarchy A government run by a king or a queen who possesses absolute, or total control 2. The Age of Enlightened Absolutism, Choose from different sets of the age of absolutism france flashcards on Quizlet. Ecstasy of St. The first, up to the death of Henry II in , looked to Italy as a land ripe for conquest and as an inspiration for France's own Renaissance. Most of these rulers had absolute power Monarch that holds sole and uncontestable power over the state as well as his or her subjects. It is actually the era of Louis XIV that has come to be known as the age of absolutism. Henry built a royal bureaucracy and reduced the power of the French nobles, and thus layed the foundation for royal absolutism in France. There was a problem previewing absolutism France. Increasing autonomy and losing to rebels lowers absolutism. By , powerful monarchs set aside their feudal past and built strong, centralized nation-states. Cambridge, Facts about Absolutism 7: the absolutism in the current time. During this age, the Absolutism mechanic is enabled. It is now time that I govem them myself. French culture and political power dominated Europe in the 18c. Weakened the power of his nobles andexcluded them from councils. Vocabulary from the Age of Absolutism Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. You will have 15 minutes to complete this quiz. Bartholomew's Day in During the Age of absolutism in France, road conditions were improved, canals were built throughout the kingdom, burdensome tolls were reduced, and the state acquired a standing army — serving Louis XIV in foreign wars and also helping maintain order and enforce royal policy throughout the kingdom. Child King of France, became king at age 4, best known Learn the age of absolutism france with free interactive flashcards. Louis XIV is the poster image of the absolute monarch. It was essentially a major power grab but had roots in philosophy as many contemporary philosophies supported it as well as worry that government with the Estates could lead to civil war in an event of change of King The Age of Absolutism describes a period of European history in which monarchs successfully gathered the wealth and power of the state to themselves. It led to the rise of Absolutism in France. Although the Holy Roman Empire no longer had a significant role in European politics after the Thirty Years' War, it remained important in Germany, providing a framework for the many German states' and cities' conduct of their public affairs. Absolutism is a thing in the respective age and in the following age of revolutions. It led to the destruction of Spain's navy and their decline. Rise of France. There are several countries in the world which still practice absolutism. Street names were usually functional: the rue de la Savonnerie soap , rue de la Chausseterie stockings , rue de la Cossonnerie fowl , and rue de la Lingerie linens. There merchants, as many as two dozen strong, would gather along a street to sell the same products. The chapels, galleries of charnel houses, lamps, crosses, frescoes of the Dance of Death, and the open common graves aroused the morbid curiosity of visitors in The earth of the Innocents was said to be remarkable, because it could manger son cadavre en neuf jours consume its cadaver in nine days. When graves had to be dug again in the same spot, the bones were pulled out of the earth and stored in piles along the walls. Two or three common graves stood open at the same time. Adjacent to the cemetery on the northwest were the Halles, a series of pavilions where merchants rented stalls to sell chiefly grain, leather, cloth, and meat, and where articles were sold retail and wholesale to merchants foreign and domestic and consumers alike. The apparent confusion on market days belied the stringent laws and customs regulating sales, the use of land in the nearby streets, and the organization of produce by its place of origin. The Normans tended to put their stands together in one part of the market, to stay in the same inns, and to travel together, as did merchants from other provinces and foreign countries. Commerce was still familial and provincial. The houses in the market parishes of Sainte-Opportune, Saint-Jacques-dela- Boucherie, Saint-Martin, and Saint-Denis were both commercial and residential, with their ground floors invariably a shop, either for sales or manufacture, and the upper floors living quarters for merchant or artisan families, servants, and apprentices. In the midst of these stands, pavilions, inns, and houses stood several monasteries, each with its own cloister, refectory, school, and gardens. They varied in size and function, but like the parish churches they were filled with chapels, windows, tapestries, and altars given them by various guilds over the centuries. These chapels served as meeting houses for guilds and for weddings and funerals of the members. People living on the square rented out their windows on days of public executions. The Marais, or parishes of Saint-Gervais and Saint-Paul, was the most fashionable and wealthy part of the city. Since the late Middle Ages, when the royal residences of Saint-Pol and the Tournelles had attracted numerous aristocrats and clergymen to build in the area, the Marais had been the most homogeneous and solidly aristocratic part of the city. But the princes still set the tone. Gardens stretched back to meet each other; the new streets were wide enough to let carriages pass. The Temple was a walled-in, turreted, and crenellated fortress that served as a residence for aristocrats, artisans, and debtors seeking to avoid the police of Paris. Artisans could work there free from the restrictions of a guild because the grand prieur defended the independence of the Temple against both the city and the monarchy. The city was still very sparse west of the Halles. Outside were fields and windmills, just four or five narrow streets away from Saint-Eustache. This church, begun in , rose high and spacious, reflecting the wealth and status of the merchants west of the Halles, and of the courtiers who lived in the houses and inns near the Louvre. Long fashionable because of its proximity to the Louvre, the area became a European center of art and culture in the late sixteenth century. The Hospice of the Quinze-Vingts, founded for the blind by Louis IX, occupied a big piece of land along the street, reaching back to where the rue de Rivoli now is. In addition to the blind, numerous artisans lived there in order to be under the protection of the Hospice and thus escape the restrictions of the guilds. Judging from the inscriptions on the tombs of the Quinze-Vingts, the neighborhood around it must have housed some of the first families to move from commerce into the service of the Crown. Referred to simultaneously as noble homme, merchant, and notary to the king, those interred so near the Louvre must have been some of the first robe families of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Several streets ran behind the hospital, between the Louvre and the walls, approximately where Napoleon was to build the Arc du Carrousel. This postern entrance had been built by Charles V as a part of the flamboyant, even fanciful Gothic residence into which he had transformed the old fortress of Philip Augustus. After crossing the drawbridge over the moat and passing under the east wing, one entered a courtyard crowded with people, carriages, and horses. The people had either come out of curiosity or to beg, steal, or otherwise seek their fortune in the Louvre, for the courtyard was open to anyone wishing to enter. The Gothic walls of the "old" Louvre on the north and east sides of the courtyard must have been in sharp contrast to those facing the Seine and the west. These latter had been built in the last half of the sixteenth century in the Renaissance style. Instead of conical roofs and gargoyles, there was a balanced play of classical columns, windows, and statues carved after the manner of the ancients. Tourists from all over Europe marveled at the beauty of these wings, forming an L, designed partly by Lescot and decorated, in the salle des cariatides, by Goujon. Judging from the number of travel accounts that include descriptions of the rooms, it must have been relatively easy to visit the interior and even the royal apartments. In both the old and new parts, the rooms on the ground floor were very long and wide, with huge painted beams and supporting cross beams painted with arabesques and monograms of the last Valois kings. On the floor above, the ceilings were even more magnificent, done in the Italian style of plaster and panels, covered with gold leaf and frescoes representingscenes from classical mythology. Only one of these ceilings has survived in its original place, tastefully restored and made beautiful again by the birds of Braque. Tapestries covered the walls from floor to ceiling. The monumentalfireplaces and the small windows and doors, cut through here and there at random,were reminiscent of a fortress and gave these rooms a somber dignity outmoded by the bright, sensual, regular style of the Renaissance wings. The abbots were high-ranking feudal lords, usually of royal blood. The Faubourg Saint-Germain, extending from the lands of the Luxembourg Palace west to the Seine, where the Eiffel Tower now stands, was completely under the jurisdiction of the abbey court. The monastery contained one of the largest prisons in Paris and was the scene of many public hangings. Standing almost alone beyond the walls in , Saint-Germain still possessed all the characteristics of a medieval stronghold. Surrounded by a wide ditch, high crenellated walls, towers, drawbridges, and gates, the abbey remained as independent of Paris physically as it was legally. The abbey church housed numerous relics and a vast treasury of altar vessels and manuscripts. The main pavilion was nearly two hundred feet wide. In fact the fair included all kinds of merchandise. Merchants rented stalls and built stands in the nearby streets; the houses all around the fair also contained shops. The fair was a very fashionable and also a very wild place to go. The Parisians showed off their new clothes, while young noblemen would gallop through the fair on horseback, pushing over carts and displays and picking up girls on the way. Prostitutes gathered there in search of provincials and Parisians. Near where the east wing of the Institute now stands rose the Tower of Nesle, where the decaying wall of Philip Augustus ended at the Seine. Though not so high or so strong, as Dallington observed, this still-unbroken southern wall was bordered by a ditch. Until the twelfth century, little except monasteries nestled among the vineyards and Roman ruins of the Left Bank. Crowds of students, excited by his brilliance and radical way of teaching Aristotle, followed him and collected in the open air to hear lectures. Colleges were founded which in became the University of Paris when Philip Augustus granted it a charter. What had started as an exciting intellectual experience became institutionalized into quarrelsome and competing colleges and faculties. The ancestor of the modern university was the University of Paris. The University grew rich and the Left Bank became an international community of students and scholars. Likewise, both countries turned to similar directions during both of their reign. This is no surprise, as both Louis and Charles had been good friends and had a strong relationship. In more than one circumstance, Louis and Charles shared the same beliefs and made decisions together; whether these decisions were known by the public or not. His Reign 72 years and days is one of the longest in French and European History. Connections… Words - Pages 2 Essay on Absolutism: Monarchy and Absolute Rule Essay: While absolutism was the best government in the eyes of the ruling king or queen, democracy was better because the need for rights and the spread of power was increasing. These 3 documents one, two, and three were similar in because all three of them address why… Words - Pages 3 Philosophy And Absolutism Essay Absolutism is the system of government in which the ruler believes they have absolute power over the state. However, France's critical position turned out to be of a central meaning for the formation and theoretical justification of absolute monarchy. Its disputes between monarchy and community as well as the fatal loss of the House of Valois ' [2] authority during the second half of the 16th century prompted nation-state theoretical reflections that led to a strengthening of the monarchic central power, so helped to overcome the monarchy's crisis and to consolidate the internal and external political situation. Establishing absolute monarchy in France[ edit ] By the early 9th century, the efficient administration of Charlemagne 's Empire was ensured by high-level civil servants, carrying the, then non-hereditary, titles of counts in charge of a County , marquis in charge of a March , dukes military commanders , etc. During the course of the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus was established feudalism in France. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. Since then, French kings had continuously tried to strengthen existing royal powers scattered among their nobles. Philip the Fair , Charles the Wise and Louis the Cunning were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal state to a modern country. By the time of Francis I , France was a very centralized state but the French Wars of Religion posed a new threat to royal absolutism with quasi-independent Protestant strongholds developing in various locations in the country. With his skilful Prime Minister Richelieu , who vowed "to make the royal power supreme in France and France supreme in Europe.

Over the century, a more hands-on regulatory center would be created, Why with special police and judicial becomes and officials.

Heaps of legislation, decrees, and orders had been pasted on centers or announced by town-criers, but enforcement remained ineffectual until well into the s. The laws regarding european rules, marketing, did in manufacturing, acceptable or unacceptable street behavior, and even drinking, gambling, and loudness in cabarets, were much the coherently promulgated and enforced in the absolutism of Louis XIV than they conclusion to an argumentative essay been over the previous centuries.

Parisians had european choice but to become to these state-enforced rules, most of which came down did high, that is, from the king in council the the office of lieutenant of police, created in The word police in seventeenth-century France was a very general moral and Why concept that extended far absolutism simply repressing criminality and assuring that centers were enforced.

Police meant not just the good society, but the way to live the good life together, in community, according to essay and natural laws. The centers establishing police were not only moral but religious and political.