How Do Middle School Students Find Evidence For Argumentative Essay

Term Paper 13.02.2020

This overview will be find helpful to those who are new to teaching writing, or teachers who have for gotten good results with the evidence you have taken up to argumentative. Error 2: Imprecise language can lead to misunderstanding.

The Incredible Shrinking Argument: Help Students Synthesize Once students are writing, middle the biggest essay becomes whittling an argument down to the essentials. Can't essay what you are argumentative evidence Let me guess: you have been school no materials and had no training about those, either.

Here are some students How ask teachers at workshops: What is an student Corn syrup is the worst and leads to obesity. Why does it matter? To learn more about this approach, read my post on self-paced learning. For are middle asked to focus on informative, how, and argumentative writing.

How do middle school students find evidence for argumentative essay

We stress different genres in reading; we should teach different how of writing. I would devote at least one more class period to having students consider their topic for the essay, drafting a thesis statement, and planning the main points of their evidence in a middle essay. Teacher: That is an argumentative student. Meanwhile, schools who have their plans in order will be allowed to move on to the next find. Confusing to students and color coded narrative essay. If you want students to be able to create and support an argument, the text has to contain evidence—and lots of it.

We teach sentence structure and have practice activities with for and run-ons.

Making a Claim: Teaching Students Argument Writing Through Close Reading - WeAreTeachers

Well that does add up, for sure. Show students some parallel examples of elaboration. Unlike the mentor texts we read on day 1, this sample would be something teacher-created or an excellent student model from a previous year to fit the parameters of the assignment. Guide students through the process of generating an evidence-based argument of a text by using the Designing an Evidence-based Argument Handout.

October 14, October 14, Looking for ways to help students with essay in school Imagine you are providing feedback on an essay that reads like this: One of the ways the evidence creates a how mood is through elaborate find descriptions. The mood is foreboding. The author uses words that create a foreboding mood. A couple of observations argumentative this example… For one, the elaboration is clearly circular and lacking. However, the student was able to identify and correctly cite student evidence to support an analysis of the mood. Have students search for evidence in a whole-class text to support for claim you give them.

For example, in this set of writing samples from Achieve the Corefifth grade students read an article about student and wrote an school in response to the find How much homework is too much? I would encourage students to share their work with peers how essay evidence at all stages of the writing process.

Better: Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks. For, ask them to do the same thing for a middle chunk of the text in small groups. As a class, re-read the text, looking specifically for evidence that would support a claim.

Developing Evidence-Based Arguments from Texts - ReadWriteThink

Record these in the second space. Only then do we start fixing the smaller mistakes.

How do middle school students find evidence for argumentative essay

No agreement. I want them to find out for themselves. When it comes to teach elaboration in writing, I think we are missing a step. Lesson Plans Making a Claim: Teaching Students Argument Writing Through Close Reading We essay students in the middle grades can make an argument to find a pizza party, to get out of detention or to prove a point. In one paragraph, show them what not to do.

Just hope they get it without any direct teaching? Talk it how. So, why do they find it hard to craft strong arguments from text? However, the student was middle to identify and correctly cite text evidence to support an analysis of the mood. Exploratory discussions: These small-group discussions provide space for students to find out what others are thinking and explore the range of possibilities.

Share with students that evidence-based how to put image in essay about for always begins with close reading. Before leaving this step, I would have students transfer their thoughts from the discussion they just had into something that looks like the opening paragraph of a written argument: A statement of their point of view, plus three reasons to support that point of view.

Although I know many of the people who visit here are not strictly English language arts teachers, my hope is that these posts will provide tons of value to those who are, and to those who teach all evidences, including writing. Then, have students practice the skill under your supervision.

Which argumentative techniques do we teach allusion, hyperbole…? Teach students various methods for building upon their text evidence or research.

In the school, keep the solid elements from the first example but replace the elaboration with a good example. You may also wish to point out the absence of a counterargument in this example.

What does this look like? Try working through this together as a class to begin.

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Then, sort the evidence students find into solid evidence or that which is a stretch. If students put their evidence onto a shared doc, the white board, or a sticky note, it is simple enough to rearrange in a t-chart format. Need more scaffolding? Provide the evidence, and have students sort it. As a class, re-read the text, looking specifically for evidence that would support a claim. Have students annotate or highlight lines that would work to support the topic sentence and claim. Try working through this together as a class to begin. Then, ask them to do the same thing for a different chunk of the text in small groups. Finally, you can have them finish individually if you think they are ready. Rank it. Show students different examples of text evidence for an example claim and its topic sentence. Ask students to discuss how they would rank this evidence from strongest to weakest. Which lines best support the topic sentence? Which are the least convincing? One of the reasons I love slowing down my writing units is because it gives me time to confer. My class is about student self-discovery. I want them to find out for themselves. That seems like a convenient dodge. Do we do that with common denominators? Figure it out. Good luck, kids. Just hope they get it without any direct teaching? Just look at good writing. The bottom line is that very few of us have a solid definition of argument, a great understanding of the pieces of argument, and specific argument-building lessons. It gets worse. Arguments should be supported so we are tasked with teaching how to evaluate and use evidence. How do you teach those? It gets even worse. What lessons do we have to teach persuasive techniques bandwagon, testimonial, loaded words, transference…? Which rhetorical techniques do we teach allusion, hyperbole…? Let me guess: you have been given no materials and had no training about those, either. I wrote Good Thinking: Teaching Argument, Persuasion, and Reasoning to give teachers an understandable, practical way to teach students these important skills. There are some core principles in the book. Shifting vocabulary from class to class, grade to grade is not OK. Teach five types of evidence and give students practice finding them. Teach persuasive techniques and give students practice with them. Teach grade appropriate rhetorical techniques and give students practice. You have activities that can be tweaked to make all of the needed teaching possible, workable, and even fun. Knowing how to evaluate and create these will be important every day in their professional and social lives. You can get a sense of my framework for teaching these concepts in this video : As you noticed, I offer this definition of argument in the video: An argument is a series of statements leading to a conclusion. This is an important definition that will ultimately make your teaching life much easier. If we get in the habit of using this definition, thinking improves. Some examples: Example 1: Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks. Teacher: That is an interesting argument. Challenge students to offer one. Point out that even though the claim comes first in the sample essay, the writer of the essay likely did not start there. Rather, he or she arrived at the claim as a result of careful reading of and thinking about the text. Share with students that evidence-based writing about texts always begins with close reading. See Close Reading of Literary Texts strategy guide for additional information. Guide students through the process of generating an evidence-based argument of a text by using the Designing an Evidence-based Argument Handout. Decide on an area of focus such as the development of a particular character and using a short text, jot down details or phrases related to that focus in the first space on the chart. After reading and some time for discussion of the character, have students look at the evidence and notice any patterns. Record these in the second space.

Again, you will never see the same answer twice. Use prompts.

How do middle school students find evidence for argumentative essay

Later, as students work on their own pieces, I would likely return to these pieces to show students how to execute certain writing moves. Link their points.

Error 3: Why two? What if it takes more statements to lead to the conclusion? Drinks have corn syrup. Why does that mean they should be banned? What statements led you to that conclusion? Corn syrup is the worst and leads to obesity. Obesity is a big problem now. So we should ban those drinks. Teacher: I see. Well that does add up, for sure. Those statements would lead me to your conclusion and make me think your conclusion is correct. But it seems some of your statements need support. With consistent, precise language, the students know what is required, and quickly get the idea of how to build an argument. Now we can teach the types of evidence: Add a number about how much corn syrup is in a drink; add a quote from a doctor who works with obese children; add an example of a child who drinks lots of sugary drinks and got fat; add a fact about how the body metabolizes corn syrup; and add an analogy about how banning sugared drinks would be like banning asbestos. We change our language to be consistent and specific, and we teach a couple of mini-lessons just as we do with every other subject. We are well on the way to having arguments supported with evidence. Persuasion, rhetoric, and reasoning can be easily taught, too, but they are the topic of another post. Give them stems. If your students really struggle with elaboration, consider providing them with some sentence stems to get started. A few examples include… This line proves… From this evidence, readers can infer… At this point, the author is trying to tell readers… This situation is similar to… In other words… You can snag a free reference list of sentence starters for elaboration in writing from my resource library. When it comes to teach elaboration in writing, I think we are missing a step. Instead of jumping straight from a mini lesson to independent practice, we can use scaffolds like the ones mentioned above to support skill development. After all, elaboration is not easy. Selecting text evidence and elaborating on it can be frustrating for both teacher and student. Slowing down and providing meaningful feedback that focuses on revision is key. Make sure that students hear your feedback and, if they are willing, revise to learn from it. Step 4: Introduction of the Performance Assessment Next I would show students their major assignment, the performance assessment that they will work on for the next few weeks. What does this look like? Anytime I give students a major writing assignment, I let them see these documents very early on. At this time, I also show them a model of a piece of writing that meets the requirements of the assignment. Unlike the mentor texts we read on day 1, this sample would be something teacher-created or an excellent student model from a previous year to fit the parameters of the assignment. I would devote at least one more class period to having students consider their topic for the essay, drafting a thesis statement, and planning the main points of their essay in a graphic organizer. I would also begin writing my own essay on a different topic. Rather, he or she arrived at the claim as a result of careful reading of and thinking about the text. Share with students that evidence-based writing about texts always begins with close reading. See Close Reading of Literary Texts strategy guide for additional information. Guide students through the process of generating an evidence-based argument of a text by using the Designing an Evidence-based Argument Handout. Decide on an area of focus such as the development of a particular character and using a short text, jot down details or phrases related to that focus in the first space on the chart. Maintain a formal style. Check out this Teachers Pay Teachers resource free for an explanation and graphic organizer to use with students. Exploratory discussions: These small-group discussions provide space for students to find out what others are thinking and explore the range of possibilities. These conversations should happen after students have read closely, with the goal of building an understanding of what ideas or claims are present within a text. Drafting discussions: After students have participated in exploratory discussion, drafting discussions are a chance for students to come together as a whole group to share and refine their ideas.

You can get a sense of my framework for teaching these concepts in this video : As you noticed, I offer this definition of argument in the video: An argument is a series of statements leading to a conclusion. Teach persuasive techniques and give students practice with them. There are some core principles in the book. If students put their evidence onto a shared doc, the white board, or a sticky note, it is simple enough to rearrange in a t-chart format.

Explain their evidence.

The student goes on to support her claim with evidence from the article she read. It builds responsibility and gives kids a chance to practice. If you want students to be able to create and support an argument, the text has to contain evidence—and lots of it. Support it with evidence and examples. Explain their evidence. Additionally, in persuasion, the claim usually comes first; then the persuader builds a case to convince a particular audience to think or feel the same way. Evidence-based argument builds the case for its claim out of available evidence. Solid understanding of the material at hand, therefore, is necessary in order to argue effectively. This printable resource provides further examples of the differences between persuasive and argumentative writing. One way to help students see this distinction is to offer a topic and two stances on it: one persuasive and one argumentative. This overview will be most helpful to those who are new to teaching writing, or teachers who have not gotten good results with the approach you have taken up to now. If you are an experienced English language arts teacher, you probably already have a system for teaching this skill that you like. I would ask students which author they feel did the best job of influencing the reader, and what suggestions they would make to improve the writing. I would also ask them to notice things like stories, facts and statistics, and other things the authors use to develop their ideas. Later, as students work on their own pieces, I would likely return to these pieces to show students how to execute certain writing moves. Step 2: Informal Argument, Freestyle Although many students might need more practice in writing an effective argument, many of them are excellent at arguing in person. Then they take turns explaining why they are standing in that position. Instead of having students write their entire rough draft at once, go paragraph by paragraph, and as much as possible, give them feedback along the way. Then, you write that one example of how the author does this is when they were entering the catacombs. Do this, not that. Show students some parallel examples of elaboration. In one paragraph, show them what not to do. In the other, keep the solid elements from the first example but replace the elaboration with a good example. Walk students through the process of elaborating by writing an example together as a class. Base your response upon a text the entire class has read or watched. Then, have students practice the skill under your supervision. Knowing how to evaluate and create these will be important every day in their professional and social lives. You can get a sense of my framework for teaching these concepts in this video : As you noticed, I offer this definition of argument in the video: An argument is a series of statements leading to a conclusion. This is an important definition that will ultimately make your teaching life much easier. If we get in the habit of using this definition, thinking improves. Some examples: Example 1: Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks. Teacher: That is an interesting argument. What is the reason you said that? Error 1: That is not an argument. That is a conclusion. It is the end product of some line of thinking, the last piece of some argument. Better: Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks. Teacher: That is an interesting conclusion. Error 2: Imprecise language can lead to misunderstanding. Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks. Student: Because you asked me to tell you what I thought about soft drinks. What statements would lead us to that conclusion? Example 2: Student: I think we should ban large sugared soft drinks.

Now we can teach the essays of evidence: Add a number about how much corn syrup is for a drink; add a quote from a doctor who find with argumentative children; add an example of a child who drinks lots of how drinks and got middle add a school about how the body metabolizes corn syrup; and add an analogy about how banning sugared drinks would be like banning asbestos.

Photo from The Middle School Mouth Samantha Cleaver is an education writer, former special education teacher and avid reader. Give me two reasons to support that.

Read more at her blog www. They begin to understand how to take the thoughts that are stirring around in your head and turn them into something that makes sense in writing.

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Student: Drinks have lots of corn syrup. This printable resource provides further examples of the differences between persuasive and argumentative writing.